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Ten Years Of Middle American 

Annotated Bibliography And News Summary. 1948-1957 

Robert Wane hope 




Issued in 1961 

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THE annotated bibliography and news 
of Middle American archaeology on 
the following pages have been consoli- 
dated with slight revision from corre- 
sponding sections that I prepared for Vol- 
umes 14-21 of the Handbook of Latin 
American Studies, assembled and edited 
in the Hispanic Foundation at the Library 
of Congress and published by the Univer- 
sity of Florida Press. I am indebted to 
both these institutions for permission to 
republish the data. I am particularly 
grateful to Dr. Howard F. Cline, Director 
of the Hispanic Foundation, to Dr. Nathan 
A. Haverstock, present Editor of the Hand- 
hook, Mr. Francisco Aguilera, its former 
editor, and to Mr. William M. Rivera, As- 
sistant to the Editor, for their assistance 
and courtesies extended to me during my 
stint as a contributing editor. Although 
I reluctantly relinquished this task due to 
pressure of other duties — and also because 
I thought no one person should choose 
and evaluate news and bibliography for 
the Handbook over too long a period — I 
have continued my pleasant association 
with it by serving on its Advisory Board. 

Mrs. Margaret A. L. Harrison, Editor of 
the Middle American Research Institute 
of Tulane University, rechecked the hun- 
dreds of entries reprinted here, ferreted 
out many errors and omissions, and con- 
solidated the ten bibliographies into one 
file. Mrs. Harrison also adapted the abbre- 
viation system used in the Handbook of 
Latin American Studies and otherwise 
adjusted format to this Institute's publica- 

Without discussing here the validity of 
the circum-Caribbean culture area con- 
cept, or the Nuclear America and Meso- 
america formulations of Kroeber and 
Kirchhoff, I should explain that "Middle 

America" as used in these listings is an 
arbitrarily selected area of the mainland 
reaching from the Rio Grande to the Pan- 
ama Canal. It has little or no geographic, 
ethnic, or other cultural unity, but is 
merely a traditional and convenient way 
of designating the North American por- 
tions of Latin America. Until my last two 
years as a contributing editor of the Hand- 
hook, I included in my Middle American 
listings items from southern Central 
America. In 1957, by agreement among 
the editors concerned. Dr. Irving Rouse, 
who had been preparing a section called 
"The West Indies, Venezuela, and Brazil," 
changed this to "The Caribbean Area" by 
adding southern Central American listings 
and dropping the Guianas and Brazil. I 
was in accord with this adjustment and I 
still consider it a sound editorial move, for 
reasons explained by Dr. Rouse in his 
section of the Handbook that year (1958: 
vol. 20, p. 20). For my own use, however, 
I continued to keep a bibliography of 
this region, and because Mesoamerican 
archaeologists are usually interested in 
southern Central America — as they are, 
too, for example, in northern Mexico — I 
have retained Panama, Costa Rica, and 
Nicaragua in the present listings. 

I dispensed with two features of the 
listings as they originally appeared in the 
Handbook: groupings by general subject 
matter ("General"; "Excavations, Arti- 
facts, etc."; "Native Sources, Early His- 
tory, Epigraphy") and a broad subject 
index keyed to numbered items. The 
groupings can be misleading to the expert, 
for they may overlap considerably; an 
archaeological report on sites and artifacts, 
for instance, quite often contains discus- 
sions and analyses of general interest, as 
well as hieroglyphic data, and it may also 


utilize ethnohistoric sources. Then, the 
index categories of the Handbook are 
scarcely detailed enough to make them 
useful to advanced students. Almost any- 
archaeological report contains information 
that must be indexed under "artifacts," 
"art and architecture," "culture history," 
and so on. For proper use of the index in 
advanced study, one must depend on much 
more detailed indexes in the publications 
themselves — a feature, alas, too often lack- 
ing, and seldom compensated adequately 
by even the fullest table of contents. It is 
because of their indexes that H. H. Ban- 
croft's works are still so widely consulted 
after more than seventy years, and A. M. 
Tozzer's last work on Chichen Itza (in- 
dexed by Ralph L. Roys) and his edition 
of Landa's Relacion will long be invalu- 
able reference aids to the researcher. 
At the end of the present bibliography I 
list alphabetically by subject matter some 
special studies that have appeared during 
the decade, and hope that this will prove 
a useful substitute here for the Handbook 

Throughout the years that I wrote for 
the Handbook, I drew extensively on the 
excellent news reporting of Miss Tatiana 

Proskouriakoff and Dr. J. Eric S. Thomp- 
son in American Antiquity, on the Boletin 
del Centro de Investigaciones Antropolo- 
gicas de Mexico, and on the annual reports 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
the U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology, 
and the Peabody Museum of Harvard Uni- 
versity. Listings of current publications 
in American Antiquity and in the Journal 
de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris 
were also helpful. Almost all items cov- 
ered in the present bibliography are in the 
Middle American Research Institute li- 
brary at Tulane University; once a year I 
went to Washington, where the Hispanic 
Foundation of the Library of Congress 
supplied most of the rest. There are some 
important European monographs which I 
have not yet obtained. Presumably many 
of them will eventually be described in 
future volumes of the Handbook of Latin 
American Studies. 

About fourteen 1958 entries found their 
way into my section of Volume 21 of the 
Handbook. I have carefully deleted these 
from the present listings, for writers 
whose 1958 works had not appeared might 
notice the inconsistency, and Hell hath no 
fury like an author ignored. 




Palaeo-Indian 7 

Incipient Agricultural 7 

Formative 8 

Northern and Western Mexico 9 

Central, South-Central, and Eastern Mexico 9 

Southern Mexico 10 

Southern Maya Lowland 10 

Northern Maya Lowland 11 

Guatemala-El Salvador Highland 12 

West Coast of Guatemala 13 

Southern Central America 13 

Native Sources, Ethnohistory 13 

Hieroglyphic Writing, Epigraphy, Absolute Dating 14 

Art 15 

Trends in Archaeological Writing 16 

Meetings and Special Events 17 

In Memoriam 18 






AT the start of the ten-year period re- 
ported here, Helmut de Terra had al- 
ready announced the long-awaited dis- 
covery of ancient man in Mexico, the Te- 
pexpan and San Juan remains which he 
estimated to be from nine to ten thousand 
years old. Much dissatisfaction was ex- 
pressed with the way in which the Tepex- 
pan skeleton was actually excavated, pho- 
tographed, and otherwise recorded, and 
warnings were frequent that we should 
not be hasty about setting up entire cul- 
tures on the basis of a handful of artifacts, 
but in spite of these technical misgivings 
the tendency was to accept the remains as 
ancient, largely because everyone had 
wondered for many years why they had 
not appeared before. A skeleton at Tama- 
zulapan, Oaxaca, found in 1948 by Carl 
Sauer and S. F. Cook in what was at first 
thought to be a geological stratum contain- 
ing elephant bones, was associated with 
pottery and later declared intrusive by 
A. R. V. Arellano and Arturo Romano of 
the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e 
Historia de Mexico. The following year, 
Luis Aveleyra Arroyo de Anda wrote 
about Yuma- and Clovis-like points in the 

In 1950 Richard S. MacNeish's excava- 
tions in Tamaulipas went back to Pluvial 
times there; Howel Williams re-examined 
the ancient footprints in volcanic mud- 
flows near Managua, Nicaragua; and Luis 
Aveleyra Arroyo de Anda assembled much 
of the material on ancient man in Mexico. 
In 1952 Manuel Maldonado K. and Ave- 
leyra began exploration of Tequizquiac, 
and investigated artifacts associated with 
a mammoth skeleton at Santa Isabel Ixta- 
pan, Mexico. In 1953 Sol A. R. de la Bor- 

boUa and Luis Aveleyra de Anda reported 
on a Plainview point found in northern 
Tampaulipas. Four years later Juan Ca- 
macho Armenta wrote about Palaeo-In- 
dian artifacts in Puebla. 

Incipient Agricultural 

For many years the hiatus between the 
Palaeo-Indian and fully agricultural For- 
mative cultures in Middle America re- 
mained an almost hypothetical epoch with 
only meager hints as to its existence. In 
1948 Philip Drucker of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, described a midden on the Chiapas 
coast, in which pottery decreased and fin- 
ally disappeared as his single small test pit 
progressed downward, although there 
were ample nonceramic remains of human 
occupation in these lower layers. In Pan- 
ama a National Geographic Society- 
Smithsonian Institution expedition, di- 
rected by M. W. Stirling, assisted by Gor- 
don R. Willey, excavated shell heaps at 
Monagrillo near the mouth of the Parita 
River in Herrera Province, finding pottery 
apparently unrelated to anything else 
known in this general area at the time, but 
somewhat resembling early ceramic types 
elsewhere in the Americas. Charles R. 
McGimsey III of Harvard University dug 
a preceramic site, Cerro Monjote, Panama, 
and obtained a radiocarbon date there. 

The big break-through in this research 
came with Richard S. MacNeish's excava- 
tions in Tamaulipas caves, where the 
stratigraphy went back to Pluvial times, 
yet the dry cave conditions had preserved, 
in subsequent layers, the actual remains 
of corn, beans, squash, and other food or 
chewing plants. Primitive forms of corn, 
comparable in type and age to those of 



Bat Cave in Arizona, and other food re- 
mains yielded valuable information not 
only on the ancestry and strains of early 
nuiize, but also on the dej^ree to which it 
supplemented hunting and wild food gath- 
ering in ancient subsistence. MacNeish 
also determined the order in which cer- 
tain plants appeared, and the rate at which 
they grew in popularity. 

Artifacts from La Candelaria and Paila 
Caves in Coahuila were studied, and new 
exploration took place in Cueva Teada in 
San Luis Potosi. 


Of the pre-Classic discoveries in 1948 
and 1949, the most significant were those 
of Formative and proto-Classic remains at 
Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala, where A. V. 
Kidder and E. M. Shook, Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington, investigated some ex- 
traordinarily rich Miraflores phase tombs 
in the largest structure at this extensive 
site. Several years later, after Carnegie 
had closed its Guatemala operation, a 
group of University of Oklahoma students 
under the direction of Stephan F. de Bor- 
hegyi excavated at Finca Samayoa, Kami- 
naljuyu, and Las Charcas, assisting Gus- 
tavo Espinosa of the Institute de Antro- 
pologia e Historia de Guatemala. At Ya- 
rumela in the Comayuagua Valley of Hon- 
duras, a Peabody Museum of Harvard ex- 
pedition, under the field direction of Joel 
S. Canby, excavated another large struc- 
ture built in pre-Classic times. In Mexico 
the Institute Nacional de Antropologia e 
Historia continued investigations, under 
Arturo Romano, Jose Luis Arevalo, and 
Eduardo Pareyon, at Tlatilco, a Formative 
period site, and according to a report by 
Daniel F. Rubin de la Borbolla, Director 
of the Museo Nacional de Mexico, began 
exploration of other pre-Classic remains 
in the Valley of Mexico. Richard S. Mac- 
Neish found important Formative remains 
in lower levels of his excavations in the 

Perhaps the most striking feature of the 
XXIX International Congress of Ameri- 

canists, in New York, 1949, was the num- 
ber of papers read on pre-Classic cultures; 
among them we should mention particu- 
larly E. M. Shook's "The Present Status 
of Research on the pre-Classic Horizons in 
Guatemala," published in the Proceedings 
of the Congress in 1951. In 1950 my study 
of pre-Classic ceramics attempted to de- 
fine a tentative sequence of pottery fea- 
tures and their associations with architec- 
ture and selected other cultural expres- 
sions. A developmental scheme of Early 
Formative, Village Formative, Urban For- 
mative, and proto-Classic cultural periods 
was suggested; in the years that followed, 
new discoveries, some revealing major 
architecture on earlier ceramic horizons, 
indicated that modifications of this termin- 
ology, or at least a readjustment of the 
ceramic scale accompanying it, would be- 
come necessary. MacNeish's suggestion of 
substituting the name Temple Formative 
for Urban Formative, because of the lat- 
ter's implications in traditional sociologi- 
cal usage, was well taken, and later the 
term "Theocratic Formative" was also pro- 
posed. In 1951 further important pre-Clas- 
sic discoveries were made at Structure 
C-III-6, Kaminaljuyu. In 1952 Rafael Ore- 
liana, Alfonso Soto y Soria, Juan D. Leon- 
ard, and Carmen Cook de Leonard found 
Formative structures at Tepeji del Rio 
near Tula. Hidalgo. In 1958 Florence 
Jacobs-Miiller and Cesar Lizardi Ramos 
investigated a pre-Classic pyramid at Hua- 
palcalco. Tlancingo Hidalgo. University of 
California excavations directed by Robert 
F. Heizer unearthed one of the oldest 
known "urban" centers at Cuicuilco. By 
the latter part of the decade reported here. 
Formative period remains turned up so 
frequently that they were not separately 
mentioned in news reports from excava- 
tions, and a new research institution, the 
New World Archaeological Foundation, 
planned to concentrate on the pre-Classic 
epoch. Under Thomas Ferguson and E. M. 
Shook their explorations began in the 
Chiapa de Corzo and Acale region in the 
Grijalva Basin. 


In 1954 my study of the implications of 
radiocarbon dates attempted to assign ab- 
solute dates to the various phases of the 
Formative period and thus compare the 
chronologies of Middle America with those 
of the Andean regions. Gordon R. Willey 
published a paper on similar topics in 

Northern and Western Mexico 

Northern and western Mexico, often 
neglected archaeologically between the 
active programs carried on in the south- 
west United States and central Mexico, 
saw some interesting research. In 1949 
James C. Garner, University of Texas, 
carried on investigations in Repelo-Absolo 
sites along the Tamaulipas coast, and Mac- 
Neish continued his previously mentioned 
survey of ceramic and nonceramic occupa- 
tions in the Sierra de Tamaulipas. In 1952 
the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e 
Historia de Mexico (INAH) extended its 
intensive program of archaeology north- 
ward and westward into Nayarit and later 
also into Jalisco and Colima. First 
George W. Brainerd and, subsequently, C. 
W. Meighan, University of California at 
Los Angeles, excavated at Pefiitas, Naya- 
rit. The Museum of Southern Illinois car- 
ried on summer excavations at the Schroe- 
der site in Durango, under the direction 
of J. Charles Kelley. Walter W. Taylor, 
of the Centro de Investigaciones Antro- 
pologicas de Mexico, dug in Coahuila caves 
and elsewhere in northern Mexico. In 1949 
Herbert C. Taylor Jr. published a report 
on pictographic reconnaissance in north- 
ern Coahuila. George E. Fay, Southern 
State College, Arkansas, made a survey of 
western to northern Mexico. In 1955 Rob- 
ert H. Lister, University of Colorado, who 
had been active in field work in the area, 
summarized the status of archaeology in 
western Mexico and listed forty-six sites 
in eleven zones. 

Central, South-Central, and 
Eastern Mexico 

The INAH of Mexico carried on through- 
out the decade the most extensive archaeo- 
logical program in Middle America. Its 
activities extended into the northern and 
western parts of the republic, and — as will 
be described later — into southern Mexico 
and Yucatan as well, but its intensive ex- 
cavations were concentrated in the cen- 
tral, south-central, and eastern areas. Ig- 
nacio Marquina was Director of the Insti- 
tute, and Eduardo Noguera was in charge 
of its Direccion de Monumentos Prehis- 
panicos. Daniel F. Rubin de la Borbolla 
and Eusebio Davalos Hurtado of the Museo 
Nacional and Pablo Martinez del Rio of 
the Escuela Nacional also played import- 
ant roles in administration. 

INAH staff members were assigned at 
different times to different sites, so the 
following listing of persons with places is 
not precise: Huapalcalco, Chautla, Puebla, 
and Tula, Hidalgo (Hugo Moedano, Pon- 
ciano Salazar, Rafael Orellana, Jorge 
Acosta R.) ; Teotihuacan (Carlos Margain, 
Agustin Villagra) ; Tlatilco (Roman Pifia 
Chan) ; Xochicalco (Eduardo Noguera, 
Rafael Orellana Tapia, Jose Luis Lorenzo, 
William Sanders) ; Tlalpan (Jose Gorbea) ; 
Loma de Extepete (Jose Corona Nunez) ; 
Tlalcuala near Tetitla (Laurette Se- 
journe) ; Coixtlahuaca (Ignacio Bernal, 
Felipe Montemayor, Jorge Obregon) ; Cas- 
tillo de Teayo (Jose Garcia Payon, Pedro 
Armillas) ; Porfirio Guerrero, Tamuin in 
the Huasteca (Wilfred Du Solier) ; El Taj in 
(Jose Garcia Payon, Pedro Armillas) ; Rio 
Papaloapan and Cazones, Veracruz (Al- 
fonso Medellin Zenil) ; elsewhere in Vera- 
cruz (Eduardo Noguera, Juan Valenque- 
la) ; caves in Morelos and Guerrero (Va- 
lentin Lopez Gonzalez) ; La Quemada, Za- 
catecas (Pedro Armillas) ; Chalco (Rich- 
ard MacNeish) . Investigations also took 
place in El Tepalcate, San Miguel Aman- 
tla, and Tetila (Teotihuacan) , Tepantla, 
Teopanzolco (Morelos) , Extapantongo, 
Tlapocoya (Mexico) , Rioverde (San Luis 



Potosi), and at other sites in Morelos, 
Veracruz, Guerrero, Puebla, and Micho- 

Other institutions carried on projects in 
this extensive region. The Carnegie Mu- 
seum, Pittsburgh, excavated a cord-marked 
pottery site at El Risco on Lake Tezcoco, 
under the direction of Wilham J. Mayer- 
Oakes. Alfonso Medellin of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology of the state of 
Veracruz made a Chicontepec survey and 
excavated at Los Cerros and Dicha Puerta. 
Waltraat Hantert of Germany dug at 
Santa Cruz Juarez. George W. Brainerd 
of UCLA and, afterwards, H. B. Nicholson, 
excavated at Cerro Portezuelo near Chi- 
malhuacan in the Valley of Mexico, aided 
by a Wenner-Gren Foundation grant. S. 
Linne surveyed the Iguala-Chilpancingo 
region of eastern Guerrero. 

One of the few intensive multidiscipline 
area studies took place at Tlatelolco, where 
archaeological exploration and reconstruc- 
tion were part of a broader program of his- 
torical, palaeographic, and ethnological in- 
vestigations. Antonieta Espejo directed 
the digging, and James B. Griffin, Univer- 
sity of Michigan, classified the pottery. 
Field school groups from the Universities 
of Texas and Florida, directed respectively 
by Donald Brand and John M. Goggin, 
spent several weeks in the area from 
Michoacan to Oaxaca. 

Southern Mexico 

In Oaxaca, Jorge Acosta worked at 
Monte Alban, Benjamin Perez Eguiarte 
and Agustin Villagra at Mitla, and Ignacio 
Bernal at Yatachio, Tamasulapan. Mexico 
City College students under Bernal dug 
near Mitla and Yagul. Howard F. Cline 
excavated a Chinantec site in the Valle 
Nacional, and Agustin Delgado made a 
reconnaissance of this general area. Carlos 
Margain and C. Lorenzo Gamio also car- 
ried on research in Oaxaca. 

In Chiapas, the Mayan Order of San 
Antonio, Texas, with Frans Blom in charge 
of excavations, dug at Moxviquil, near San 
Cristobal Las Casas; C. W. Weiant of the 

Explorers' Club of New York assisted. 
Blom also investigated ruins at Bolonchan. 
Edwin N. Ferdon Jr., from the School of 
American Research, aided by a Viking 
Fund grant, completed a survey of Tonala 
in the west. El Centre de Investigaciones 
Antropologicas de Mexico sent an expedi- 
tion to Coatlan, Oaxaca, and Lake Mira- 
mar, eastern Chiapas. Taking part in this 
CIAM research were Juan D. Leonard, 
Frederick Peterson, Carmen Cook de 
Leonard, Florence Jacobs-Miiller, Cesar 
Lizardi Ramos, and H. K. and U. Erben. 

Philip Drucker and Robert Heizer com- 
pleted field work at La Venta, Tabasco, for 
the Smithsonian Institution, the National 
Geographic Society, and the University of 
California. Vera Snyder made pottery col- 
lections in the Tepinapa region, and Rob- 
ert Weitlaner and Howard Brunson exca- 
vated sites around San Felipe de Leon and 
the Cerro Bobo. 

Southern Maya Lowland 

Further study of the famous Bonampak 
murals in lowland Chiapas increased our 
knowledge of certain aspects of the Classic 
period there. A second Bonampak expedi- 
tion, in which the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington cooperated with the INAH of 
Mexico, financed by the United Fruit Com- 
pany, recorded more murals from this 
amazing ruin. Gustav Stromsvik was ar- 
chaeologist of the expedition; Agustin Vi- 
llagra, Antonio Tejeda of Guatemala, and 
Hipolito Sanchez were the artists. Frans 
Blom spent five months in the Lacandon 
forests in 1948 and in subsequent explora- 
tions with Gertrude Duby he reported in- 
teresting new ruins there and in the 
Comitan and Jatate river region. 

In 1948 a Nelson Rockefeller grant 
through the Institute of Andean Research 
was announced for Palenque in the Usu- 
macintla. A large staff of INAH archaeolo- 
gists and artists, under the field direction 
of Alberto Ruz L., carried on work at the 
Tower and the Palace, and explored the 
vaulted stairway beneath the Temple of the 
Inscriptions. Important new discoveries 



of sculpture, hieroglyphic texts, and archi- 
tectural features resulted. Robert L. 
Rands, University of Mississippi, held a 
Guggenheim fellowship to study the pot- 
tery of Palenque and its environs. 

Heinrich Berlin made a reconnaissance 
of the lower Usumacintla for Carnegie In- 
stitution of Washington, working at Mana- 
gua, Chinikiha, and Miraflores. A joint 
INAH-CIAM expedition excavated over 
400 burials on the Island of Jaina, by now 
badly looted by private collectors and 
commercial dealers in relics. Gordon F. 
Ekholm carried on significant excavations 
at Comalcalco, Tabasco, for the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. 
Gordon R. Willey and A. Ledyard Smith, 
Peabody Museum of Harvard, embarked 
on an intensive excavation of Altar de 
Sacrificios, Guatemala. 

Antonio Tejeda, Director of the National 
Museum of Guatemala, completed a recon- 
naissance of sites between the Alta Vera- 
paz and San Juan Dolores in El Peten. 
The University Museum, Philadelphia, ex- 
plored some important ruins near El Cayo, 
British Honduras, and at Cahal Pech, Ca- 
racol, and Benque Viejo. A building with 
an elaborately ornamented facade was dis- 
covered at Caracol; Linton Satterthwaite, 
in charge of this work, recorded new mon- 
umental inscriptions. Satterthwaite was 
assisted in the field by A. Hamilton Ander- 
son, District Commissioner of El Cayo, 
and by B. Willcox and Seymour Nuddle. 
They removed some twenty tons of monu- 
ments and fragments from Caracol, de- 
positing one share in Belize and removing 
one share to Philadelphia for restoration 
and study. Paul Biedler, architect, re- 
corded sculptured stucco work and archi- 
tectural units at Benque Viejo; Michael 
Steward of the British Museum dug there. 
C. W. Meighan and J. A. Bennyhoff exca- 
vated at Potts Creek, north of Belize. Gor- 
don R. Willey and his associates from the 
Peabody Museum of Harvard University, 
William R. Bullard Jr. and John B. Glass, 
completed a valuable study of Maya set- 
tlement patterns, based on careful survey 

and stratigraphic excavations, at Barton 
Ramie on the Belize River in Honduras. 

In 1951 a hitherto unknown major pyra- 
mid and temple were found at Tikal in 
the Peten; the building was decorated with 
an enormous panel of hieroglyphs, in stuc- 
co. An outstanding event of the decade 
here reported was the beginning of a long- 
term program of excavation, repair, and 
restoration at Tikal by the University Mu- 
seum, Philadelphia. For sheer grandeur 
of its architecture, Tikal is certainly the 
most famous and probably the greatest 
Maya ruin. Archaeologists have long 
looked forward to the time when our 
knowledge of the lowland Maya, the 
availability of qualified personnel and 
substantial financial backing, plus the 
solution of many problems of water supply 
and transportation, would enable this ma- 
jor project to be undertaken. Edwin M. 
Shook is field director of the Tikal exca- 
vations, with Linton Satterthwaite and 
Alfred Kidder II in administrative charge. 
Aubrey S. Trik, William R. Coe, and many 
staff assistants have been assigned to this 
important work. 

Northern Maya Lowland 

The decade saw the completion of one 
major archaeological program in northern 
Yucatan — the Carnegie Institution's Maya- 
pan project — and the initiation of another 
— the National Geographic Society-Tulane 
University excavations at Dzibilchaltun. 
Prior to these long-term intensive investi- 
gations, Karl Ruppert and George W. 
Brainerd explored the Rio Bec-Chenes 
area of the southern Yucatan Peninsula. 

In 1950 the Department of Archaeology 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
under the direction of H. E. D. Pollock, 
embarked on its Mayapan program with 
mapping of the site and environs by Mor- 
ris R. Jones of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
This was followed in succeeding years by 
reconnaissance and excavation of hun- 
dreds of house mounds (A. Ledyard Smith, 
Karl Ruppert), and boundary walls (Wil- 
liam R. Bullard Jr.), excavation of cere- 



monial and domiciliary units, cenotes and 
caves, by all members of the staff and 
their graduate student assistants, by an- 
alysis of the art and artifacts recovered 
(Tatiana Proskouriakoff, J. E. S. Thomp- 
son) and of the ceramics (Robert E. Smith, 
Anna O. Shepard) . Ralph Roys carried on 
collateral research in early colonial and 
native Maya documentary sources. The 
Institution made the preliminary and 
sometimes the final results of its investi- 
gations quickly available through a series 
of Current Reports. E. M. Shook and R. E. 
Smith also made ceramic tests at Chichen 
Itza; Ruppert and A. L. Smith worked at 

E. Wyllys Andrews, for the Middle 
American Research Institute of Tulane 
University, carried on several years of 
exploration and reconnaissance in north- 
ern Yucatan and on the East Coast. In 
1958 a joint National Geographic Society- 
Tulane University project was organized, 
with substantial support from the National 
Science Foundation and the American 
Philosophical Society, to carry on inten- 
sive excavations at Dzibilchaltun, an enor- 
mous Maya ruin unique among lowland 
Maya cities because Andrews' tests indi- 
cated remains of a continuous occupation 
there from Formative times into the co- 
lonial period. The site's only standing 
temple was first excavated and repaired, 
and preliminary diving operations in the 
145-foot-deep cenote began, with promis- 
ing results. At the end of the period re- 
ported here, Andrews had begun the exca- 
vation of the Temple of the Seven Dolls 
at one end of an imposing sacbe which 
traversed the center of the city. 

The Mexican government's activities in 
Yucatan were limited for the most part to 
repair and consolidation of well-known 
structures at Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Kabah, 
Labna, and Sayil. INAH staff members 
engaged in this work were Alberto Ruz 
L., Jorge Acosta, Raul Pavon Abreu, Hugo 
Moedano, Rafael Orellano, Cesar Saenz, 
Ponciano Salazar, Sanchez Vera. A joint 

INAH-CIAM excavation was executed on 
the Island of Jaina. 

William T. Sanders made a survey of 
Cozumel Island and the East Coast for 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. E. 
Wyllys Andrews, for Tulane University, 
carried on explorations of the East Coast 
with Loren M. Hewen of New York, then 
returned for more intensive investigations 
at the site of Xcaret. Cesar Lizardi Ramos 
and Florence Jacobs-Mliller made an ex- 
pedition to Quintana Roo. 

Joel S. Canby excavated at Yarumela, 
Honduras, for the Peabody Museum of 
Harvard University, directed by J. O. 
Brew. A. V. Kidder, Gordon F. Ekholm, 
and Gustav Stromsvik cruised the coasts 
of Honduras and British Honduras, exam- 
ining sites and collections on the cays and 
the mainland. 

Guatemala-El Salvador Highland 

In 1949 E. M. Shook excavated at Cuyuta, 
Amatitlan, and Sacatepequez and in the 
Rio Dulce region. The same year A. Led- 
yard Smith and Cesar Tejeda excavated 
at Nebaj and Sajcabaja, and, with Bor- 
hegyi, worked at Mixco Viejo, Chimalte- 
nango. Smith, with Mrs. Smith, Borhegyi, 
and Robert E. Smith made a reconnais- 
sance of about fourteen sites in the Alta 

At Zaculeu a United Fruit Company ex- 
pedition under the direction of John M. 
Dimick, with Aubrey S. Trik and Richard 
B. Woodbury on the field staff, continued 
excavations and restorations. This high- 
land ceremonial center was occupied from 
Early Classic times until the Spanish con- 
quest. Henri Lehmann dug at Chicol, near 
Zaculeu, and at Mixco Viejo. The first 
volume on another important Guatemala 
highland ruin, Zacualpa, by Robert Wauc- 
hope, reported in 1948 the results of exca- 
vations for Carnegie Institution of Wash- 

In El Salvador, Stanley Boggs continued 
excavations and repair at Tazumal, San 
Andres Campana, and Cihuatan. Restora- 
tion of the west side of the main Tazumal 



pyramid and exploration of earlier stair- 
ways were completed in 1952. Wolfgang 
Haberland of Hamburg carried on recon- 
naissance in the same country. 

West Coast of Guatemala 

An important publication of 1948 was J. 
Eric S. Thompson's report on Cotzumal- 
huapa, Guatemala. In 1949 Edwin M. 
Shook investigated Sin Cabezas in the Ti- 
quisate region of the West Coast. 

Southern Central America 

Several important projects helped to 
clarify the confused chronology and cul- 
tural relationships of this area. In 1948 
the present state of our scanty knowledge 
of the entire circum-Caribbean regions, 
including Central America, was summar- 
ized in Volume 4 of the Handbook of South 
American Indians, edited by Julian H. 
Steward and published by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Among the chapters were reports on 
the archaeology of Honduras, Costa Rica, 
and Nicaragua by WilUam Duncan Strong, 
Panama by Samuel K. Lothrop, and basic 
cultures by Doris Stone. Introductory 
chapters and sections of discussions by 
Julian H. Steward and Frederick Johnson 
were stimulating, as controversial hy- 
potheses generally prove to be. The same 
year, S. K. Lothrop, for the Peabody Mu- 
seum of Harvard University, excavated 
some graves at Las Mercedes and at Fila- 
delfia on the Nicoya peninsula, and con- 
ducted a reconnaissance of Guanacaste. 
Willey's Formative period research at 
Monagrillo has been mentioned. 

In addition, two sites yielding Cocle- 
type materials and a third. El Hatillo, 
which is probably earlier, were investi- 
gated by the Smithsonian Institution-Na- 
tional Geographic Society expedition un- 
der M. W. Stirling and Willey. 

In 1949 the Peabody Museum of Harv- 
ard continued work in Costa Rica, where 
Lothrop made a study of the southern Pa- 
cific plains. He excavated a series of Chiri- 

qui cemeteries in Coto Valley, then dug at 
Palmar Sur in the Rio Diquis delta, test- 
ing seventeen sites in all. M. W. Stirhng, 
Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy, with Mrs. Stirling and Richard Stew- 
art, continued archaeological work in 
Panama as a joint expedition of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society and the Smith- 
sonian Institution. They excavated at Utive 
in the province of Panama, at Barriles and 
Palo Santo, Chiriqui, and at three sites 
between Santiago and Sona, Veraguas. 
Both Lothrop's and Stirling's excavations 
revealed heretofore unreported ceramic 
materials, in some cases earlier than the 
known Chiriqui and Code cultures. In 
1951 Stirling, assisted by Robert L. Rands, 
renewed investigations in Panama for 
these institutions, with a reconnaissance 
of three river systems on the Atlantic 
coast between the Canal Zone and Chiriqui 
Lagoon, and of the Pacific drainage oppo- 
site the headwaters of the Rio Code del 
Norte. The following year Stirling con- 
tinued this research on islands in the Gulf 
of Panama, and on Almirante Bay. 

Native Sources, Ethnohistory 

The quantity and quality of contribu- 
tions in these areas varied from year to 
year. This was probably due to the rela- 
tively small number of experts, a change 
in whose activities would considerably 
alter the number of bibliographic items 
produced during a given period. For ex- 
ample, the proportion of documentary 
studies fell sharply, from an average of 
27 per cent of the total output between 
1946 and 1950, to about 6 per cent in 1951; 
these cold statistics reflected the untimely 
death of Robert H. Barlow, the gifted and 
prolific young contributor to Middle 
American documentary and linguistic re- 
search. The published contributions to 
these areas, particularly the Yucatec Maya 
and Nahuatl native sources, were note- 
worthy, partly because they blended 
archaeology, ethnology, linguistics, and 
history in most rewarding fashion, partly 
because of the ethnic nature of the ma- 



terial. At the risk of omitting important 
examples, I call attention to the impres- 
sive list of publications by Aguirre, Ander- 
son, Barlow, Barrera Vasquez, Berlin, 
Caso, Cline, Dibble, Gibson, Hernandez, 
Jimenez Moreno, Kirchhoff, Makemson, 
Mengin, Nicholson, Recinos, Ralph Roys, 
and J. E. S. Thompson. 

Some of these, it is true, are also dirt 
archaeologists; they were joined, in more 
occasional or even single ethnohistoric 
contributions, by Stephan F. de Borhegyi, 
who wrote an interesting report on his at- 
tempt to identify an historical site, San- 
tiago de los Caballeros, by archaeological 
methods, and by me in my several at- 
tempts to correlate old Quiche native 
documentary history and genealogy with 
archaeology and thus arrive at absolute 
dates for certain protohistoric sites and 
periods. Biting back, so to speak, at these 
brazen dirt archaeologist invaders of 
ethnohistory, Howard F. Cline, an eminent 
ethnohistorian, excavated a Chinantec site 
in the Valle Nacional of Oaxaca. 

Among the many fine publications of 
the decade it is perhaps rash to single out 
any for special mention, but I do call at- 
tention to the various Sahagun books that 
have been translated and edited by Arthur 
J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble, the 
Tovar Calendar opus by George Kubler 
and Charles Gibson, the fine Quiche and 
Cakchiquel editions by Recinos, the monu- 
mental series of documentary reproduc- 
tions directed by Ernest Mengin, the many 
Tlatelolco documents translated, edited, 
and published in facsimile both in Mexico 
and abroad, the useful Mayan Chilam Ba- 
1am editions by Ralph Roys and others, 
Roys's Political Geography oj the Yucatan 
Maya and S. W. Miles' fine book on the 
sixteenth-century Pokom Maya. 

Hieroglyphic Writing, Epigraphy, 
Absolute Dating 

The output in this area also fluctuated 
from year to year. Epigraphic monographs 
increased slightly from 1948 to 1951, to 
about 10 per cent of all archaeological pub- 

lications, although a decade before they 
had comprised as much as 29 per cent of 
the items the contributing editor of the 
Handbook listed. 

Probably the most significant develop- 
ment in Mayan epigraphy during these 
ten years was the revival of interest in. 
the phonetic, phonemic, and morphemic 
aspects of hieroglyphic writing. The Rus- 
sian, Y. V. Knorozov, reported his attempts 
at translation of noncalendric texts, and 
J. Eric S. Thompson was at work during 
much of this decade compiling a diction- 
ary of noncalendric glyphs. Thompson's 
research led him to the discovery of some 
interesting meanings in Maya written 
morphemes — especially prefixes, suffixes, 
infixes — and in a paper read before the 
Society for American Archaeology and 
later pubhshed in American Antiquity, he 
translated sections of ancient Maya codices 
having to do with almanac prognostica- 
tion. Attempts at reading this hieroglyphic 
writing were summarized by T. S. Barthel 
in a 1956 article. 

In 1950 Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington pubhshed J. Eric S. Thompson's 
monumental Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: 
an Introduction. 

Hieroglyphic and calendric research is 
slow, tedious work, often resulting in very 
short papers; to single out any of this 
work for particular mention might be mis- 
leading. Two extremely useful listings, 
however, both involving an exhaustive 
knowledge of the field and infinite pa- 
tience in assembling critically appraised 
dates, were Sylvanus G. Morley's "Check 
List of the Corpus Inscriptionum Maya- 
rum and Check List of all Known Initial 
and Supplementary Series" (1948) and E. 
Wyllys Andrews' "The Maya Supplemen- 
tary Series," which provided readings of 
each text, qualifying notes, and biblio- 
graphic references. Another important 
contribution was Linton Satterthwaite's 
"Further Implications of Thompson's 
Reading of Maya Inscriptions at Copar" 

Besides the long-continuing study of the 



Maya-European calendar correlation prob- 
lem, radiocarbon dating and documentary 
research added to the once scanty knowl- 
edge of absolute dating of prehistoric cul- 
tures. In 1950 W. F. Libby of the Institute 
of Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago, 
released the first three lists of provisional 
dates based on Carbon 14 measurement. 
Helmut de Terra commented on these in 
several articles. In 1954 I summarized 
and appraised all C14 dates for Meso- 
america and the Andean area in a paper, 
"Implications of Radiocarbon Dates from 
Middle and South America"; in it I con- 
sidered the dates relative to the calendar 
correlation problem, and discussed simi- 
larities in the chronology of broad cultural 
developments as well as specific phenom- 
ena such as the Olmec and Chavin cults, 
and the possible direction and time of the 
spread of corn and pottery between the 
continents. In 1955 Gordon R. Willey pub- 
lished a paper on "The Interrelated Rise 
of the Native Cultures of Middle and 
South America," and in 1958 Willey and 
collaborators brought out detailed "Esti- 
mated Correlations and Dating of South 
and Central American Culture Sequences," 
also making extensive use of radiocarbon 
data — not only a useful series of reference 
charts but also significant in interpreting 
the rate and direction of prehistoric dif- 


In most cases, general works on ancient 
Middle American art suffered for lack of 
an adequate cultural-historical background 
in the text. There were many large col- 
lections of superb photographs, but almost 
invariably the accompanying text and cap- 
tions were long outmoded, advancing dog- 
eared theories like the Archaic-Toltec- 
Aztec or Old Empire-New Empire se- 
quence, the teocenth origin of maize, and 
the Teotihuacan-Toltec identification. Ex- 
amples are Freund 1954 (introduction by 
R'vet) and Medioni 1950; Spinden 1957 
was simply a verbatim reprint of his 1913 
Study of Maya Art; Linne 1956 was not 

wholly up to date, but better than the 
usual art book in this field; Groth-Kimball 
1954 had a brief, nonanthropological art 
appraisal with magnificent illustrations; 
Covarrubias 1957 was also better for its 
pictures than for its text. Bernal's Com- 
pendio de Arte Mesoamericano provided 
one of the few adequate introductory 
statements on archaeology and had excel- 
lent photographs, but little art analysis. 
Robertson (1957) wrote an authoritative 
statement of the Aztec culture and its 
place in history, to accompany an art show 
catalog. Toscano (1949) summarized 
trends in Mexican art, by periods, and 
Borhegyi (1954) gave a short outline of 
px'ehistory and the accompanying art de- 
velopments. A special issue of Mexico en 
el Arte was devoted to history and an- 
alysis, but again the treatment (with a 
few notable exceptions) was artistic rather 
than anthropological. 

The finest contributions continued to be 
archaeological in approach and limited in 
scope: Proskouriakoff's study of Classic 
Maya sculpture (1950), of non-Classic 
traits in Yucatan art (1951), and of varie- 
ties of Classic central Veracruz sculpture 
(1954); Rands' research on the water lily 
(1953) and manifestations of water (1954) 
in Mesoamerican art; Heine-Geldern and 
Ekholm's analysis of parallels in the sym- 
bolic art of Asia and Middle America 
(1951); Drucker's study of La Venta art 

Bonampak continued to inspire many 
works: Toscano 1948, Morley 1948, Tejeda 
1948, Villagra Caleti 1949, and the defini- 
tive report by Ruppert, Thompson, and 
Proskouriakoff (1955). Wicker wrote on 
the murals of Tepantitla, and Toscano on 
those of Teotihuacan. Satterthwaite re- 
ported the unusual relief sculptures on a 
Maya building in British Honduras (1950). 
More detailed studies were presented by 
Encisco (1953) on Mexican design motifs 
on stamps, Medioni (1952) on Tarascan 
effigies, and Millikin (1955) on Olmec 
jades. Westheim (1956) analyzed sym- 



holism in Mexican art (a large task!) and 
Lizardi Ramos (1952) wrote on the impact 
of ancient Mexican art on moderns. 

Trends in Archaeological Writing 

A count of essentially factual studies 
along with largely interpretive or theoreti- 
cal works shows that the ratio fluctuated 
from year to year, the lowest percentage 
for theoretical contributions being 7.1 and 
the highest, 41.4. Publication of papers de- 
livered at international congresses and 
other collections of general studies doubt- 
less influenced these figures. At any rate, 
there has been no consistent increase in 
theoretical papers as we learned more 
about Middle American archaeology. In- 
cluded in the factual group were reports 
on excavations, local stratigraphy, and 
historical reconstruction of a purely chron- 
ological nature. The second group included 
"prehistoric ethnological" studies, the 
socio-cultural significance of artifacts, the 
identification of ethnic groups whose re- 
mains were under study, and broad cul- 
ture-developmental reconstruction. A 
third group was not even counted since 
there were only one or two cases: studies 
of prehistoric cultural process — the nature 
and dynamics of culture as illuminated by 
archaeological materials. The last seems 
to me to be the most neglected area and 
at the same time one of the most promising 
for the archaeologist to explore, first be- 
cause he usually has huge samples of 
traits to manipulate statistically, second 
because he often controls time depths lack- 
ing to investigators of culture change in 
other branches of anthropology. My 1948 
report on Zacualpa, Guatemala, stressed 
socio-cultural reconstruction and synthesis 
for the Guatemalan highlands as known 
then. The 1949 International Congress of 
Americanists brought out a number of 
good summaries and broadly interpretive 
works, particularly E. M. Shock's discus- 
sion of the pre-Classic horizons in Guate- 
mala. A fine topic synthesis of 1950 was Ta- 
tiana Proskouriakoff's A Study of Classic 

Maya Sculpture; in 1948, Anna O. Shep- 
ard's Plumhate Pottery: a Mesoamerican 
Trade Ware. 

Outstanding site reports which often 
treated of much broader cultural matters 
were A. L. Smith's Uaxactun volume; 
his monograph, with A. V. Kidder, on 
Nebaj, Guatemala; Philip Drucker's re- 
port on La Venta; John M. Longyear's Co- 
pan; Rene F. Millon's Teotihuacan; M. W. 
Stirling on southeastern Mexico; Garcia 
Payon's Zempoala series; Gordon R. Wil- 
ley's Monagrillo, Panama; Linton Satter- 
thwaite on Piedras Negras; Alberto Ruz 
Lhuillier on Palenque; Muriel Porter on 
Chupicuaro. The late A. M. Tozzer's 
Chicken Itza and its Cenote of Sacrifice 
is less a site report than an encyclopedic 
review of Yucatan Maya and Toltec re- 
mains in Yucatan. 

Studies treating of broad developmental 
periods and cultural trends include Pedro 
Armillas' "Tecnologia, Formaciones Socio- 
Economicas" — a revision of his earlier de- 
velopmental stages; my "Tentative Se- 
quence" paper on the pre-Classic and my 
"Implications of Radiocarbon Dates"; Wil- 
ley's "Interrelated Rise" and "Estimated 
Correlations" papers (all mentioned ear- 
lier). A. V. Kidder's and A. L. Smith's 
introduction and conclusions in the Nebaj 
volume, and Thompson's Maya Hierogly- 
phic Writing also have fine summary state- 
ments of the Mesoamerican periods as 
then known. Kidder's "Some Key Prob- 
lems of New World Prehistory" appeared 
in the Homenaje Caso volume. Willey's 
"The Structure of Ancient Maya Society," 
and Palerm and Wolf's "Ecological Poten- 
tial and Cultural Development in Meso- 
america" are also worthy of note. 

Doris Z. Stone wrote on fundamental 
cultures in Central America; S. F. de Bor- 
hegyi presented stimulating hypotheses 
in his "Cultura Folk 6 Compleja"; Palerm 
commented on previous developmental 
sequence proposals; and Olive and Barba 
wrote on factors contributing to the fall 
of the Classic Maya cities of the lowlands. 

J. Eric S. Thompson is to be congratu- 



lated, as was also the late George W. Brain- 
erd, for having taken time from personal 
research projects to write a general book 
on Maya civilization. The two efforts are 
excellent and supplement each other. 
Krickeberg's Altmexikanischen Kulturen 
(1956) is perhaps the best general study 
of Mexican archaeology published during 
the decade. As a reference book of facts 
and illustrations, Marquina's Arquitec- 
tura Prehispdnica (1951) is unsurpassed — 
a magnum opus covering almost all Mexico 
and the Maya area. 

Important area summaries were written 
by Jose Garcia Payon for Veracruz, Isabel 
Kelly for Jalisco and northwest Mexico, 
Robert H. Lister (two reports) for Michoa- 
can and the northern Sierra Madre Occi- 
dental, J. Eric S. Thompson for the Pipil 
area of Guatemala (his Cotzumalhuapa 
report) , Doris Z. Stone for central and 
southern Honduras, Samuel K. Lothrop for 
Panama, Richard S. MacNeish for Tamau- 
lipas, E. M. Shook (Guatemala West 
Coast), A. L. Smith (Guatemala high- 
land), S. H. Boggs (El Salvador), and the 
Central American summaries in the Hand- 
hook of South American Indiana. 

Besides these, a large number of excel- 
lent monographs and articles presented 
cross-cultural studies of certain features. 
I list these in the index. 

Meetings and Special Events 

The XXIX International Congress of 
Americanists, sponsored by the Viking 
Fund, met in New York in September, 
1949. It devoted three sessions, with 
twenty-eight papers read, to Middle Amer- 
ican archaeology and epigraphy. Its Pro- 
ceedings were published in 1951 under the 
editorship of Sol Tax. Other important 
meetings of that year were the Second 
Reunion of the German Society of Anthro- 
pology at the Johannes Gutenberg Uni- 
versity, the newly created Societe Suisse 
des Americanistes in Geneva, and the Se- 
gunda, Tercera, and Cuarta Reuniones de 
Mesa Redonda in Mexico. 

Delegates to the XXX International 
Congress of Americanists in Cambridge, 
England, and the FV International Con- 
gress of Anthropological and Ethnological 
Sciences in Vienna heard a total of thir- 
teen papers on Middle American archae- 
ology. Other events of 1952 included the 
meetings of the Deutschen Gesellschaft 
fiir Volkerkunde in Cologne, and a special 
exhibit of ancient and modern Mexican 
art in the Museum of Modern Art, Paris, 
later in Switzerland at Estocomo. 

The VI Mesa Redonda of the Sociedad 
Mexicana de Antropologia was held at 
Chapultepec Castle, Mexico, in 1954. That 
year the XXXI International Congress of 
Americanists met in Sao Paulo, and five 
papers on Middle American archaeology 
were presented there. The XXXII session 
met in 1956 in Copenhagen, and the Inter- 
national Congress of Anthropological and 
Ethnological Sciences met at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, with one session de- 
voted to Mexican archaeology. A sym- 
posium on Middle American anthropology 
was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 
1955; later that year there was a special 
session on Middle American archaeology 
at the annual meeting of the American 
Anthropological Association, in Boston. In 
1956 the Sociedad Mexicana de Antro- 
pologia held a seven-day symposium on 
calendar systems. 

The VII Mesa Redonda, meeting in Oaxa- 
ca, devoted parts of three sessions to Za- 
potec and Mixtec archaeology. The XXXII 
International Congress of Americanists at 
Copenhagen heard several Mesoamerican 
papers, among them Y. V. Knorozov's 
presentation of his Mayan script decipher- 
ment, with lively discussions resulting. The 
XXXIII session at San Jose, Costa Rica, 
during the summer of 1958, scheduled a 
panel discussion of the Formative cultures. 
The II Congreso Internacional de Historia- 
dores de los Estados Unidos y Mexico met 
at Austin, Texas, devoting one session to 

As usual, meetings of the Society for 
American Archaeology listed many papers 



on Middle American archaeology every 

Under the auspices of the United Fruit 
Company in 1948 a memorial plaque to 
John Lloyd Stephens was unveiled at 
ceremonies in Marble Cemetery, New 
York; A. V. Kidder made the dedication 
address. In 1948 a splendid new national 
museum of archaeology and ethnology was 
opened in Guatemala City. In 1949 the 
University of San Carlos summer school 
began offering new courses in Mayan an- 
thropology, and a center for advanced 
studies was announced at the Institute 
Nacional de Antropologia e Historia there, 
with Joel Canby, Heinrich Berlin, and A. 
V. Kidder as staff consultants. In Mexico 
the same year, the Museo Nacional de An- 
tropologia installed many large exhibits 
of Aztec and earlier Mesoamerican cul- 
ture, and with the aid of the Viking Fund 
organized five new laboratories to develop 
technical aids to archaeology. 

In 1949 Mexico opened new institute 
structures, museum galleries, and labora- 
tories, began two series of publications, 
and initiated a series of scholarships for 
students, with support again from the 
Viking Fund. Under the direction of Hugo 
Cerezo Dardon, the INAH de Guatemala 
also began a new Revista, and sponsored 
seminars on pottery in collaboration with 
the Universidad Autonoma. Local archaeo- 
logical museums were opened at Chichi- 
castenango, Poptun, and Zaculeu. S. F. de 
Borhegyi made a systematic catalog of the 
museum's collections. 

In 1952 Honduras organized a new Insti- 
tute Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, 
with Jesus Nunez Chinchilla as director. 
El Salvador inaugurated a new museum at 
Tazumal, where Stanley H. Hoggs had 
been excavating and preparing exhibits 
for many years. The Museo Nacional de 
Antropologia in Mexico established a new 
"keramotica" or ceramic repository. The 
INAH de Mexico established a new De- 
partment of Prehistory devoted to studies 
in preceramic cultures and Quaternary 

geology and palaeontology. The Institute 
and the Museo, joined by the Escuela Na- 
cional de Antropologia e Historia and the 
editorial staff, sponsored a new journal, 
Tlatoani, with Carmen Cook de Leonard 
as editor. In 1953 new exhibit halls opened 
in the Museo Nacional of Costa Rica. 

Several volumes honoring distinguished 
scholars in the Middle American field were 
published during the decade under re- 
view: For the Dean: essays in anthro- 
pology in honor of Byron Cummings 
(1950) ; Morleyana: a collection of writings 
in memoriam Sylvanus Griswold Morley 
(1950) ; Hovfienaje al Doctor Alfonso Caso 
(1951) ; Estudios historicos americanos: 
homenaje a Silvio Zavala (1953) ; Estudios 
antropologicos puhlicados en homenaje al 
Doctor Manuel Gamio (1956). 

Samuel K. Lothrop was the third Alfred 
Vincent Kidder medalist, an honor award- 
ed every three years by the American 
Anthropological Association. (Alfred M. 
Tozzer was the first, and Earl H. Morris 
the second.) A. V. Kidder, in whose honor 
this medal was created, was awarded the 
Order of the Quetzal, in grade of Com- 
mander, by the President of Guatemala, 
and he also received honorary degrees 
from the University of Michigan and San 
Carlos University, Guatemala. 

In Memoriam 

The decade saw the passing of some 
great scholars of Middle American archae- 

Sylvanus Griswold Morley, 1948. 

Arturo Toscano, 1949. 

Carlos Frey and Franco L. Gomez 

(drowned on an expedition to Bo- 

nampak), 1949. 

Oliver Garrison Ricketson Jr., 1952. 

Enrique Juan Palacios, 1953. 

Alfred Marsten Tozzer, 1954. 

George W. Brainerd, 1956. 

Earl H. Morris, 1956. 

Miguel Covarrubias, 1957. 


AcosTA, Jorge R. 

1947-48 El pectoral de jade de Monte 
Alban. A. Inst. Nac. Hist, 3:17-25. 
Jade pectoral mask of the Vampire 
God, Monte Alban II. 6 figures. 

1952 Exploraciones arqueologicas efec- 
tuadas en Chichen Itza, Yucatan, 
1951. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 
6: 27-40. 

Well-illustrated account of excava- 
tions at the Temple of the Eagles, 
the Tzompantli, and other struc- 

1956a El enigma de los chac mooles de 
Tula. In Estud. Antr., pp. 159-70. 

Believes that the chac mools were 
not always gods, messengers to the 
gods, or receptacles for cardiac 
sacrifice, but that their function 
varied according to the rite. 

1956b Resumen de los informes de las 
exploraciones arqueologicas en 
Tula Hgo. durante las VI, VII y 
VIII temporadas 1946-1950. A. 
Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 8:37-115. 

Fully illustrated report, by seasons. 
Particularly interesting are sculp- 
tured stones, a clay replica of a 
temple, and a cache of offerings in 
a cylindrical container, all found in 
Building 3. 

1957 Resumen de los informes de las 
exploraciones arqueologicas en 
Tula, Hgo., durante las IX y X 
temporadas. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 9:119-69. 

Sculpture, artifacts, architecture, 
excavation, and restoration. Color 
reproduction of a sculptured pro- 
cession of Toltec chiefs. 

AcosTA Saignes, Miguel 

1950 Tlacaxipeualiztli: un complejo 
meso-americano entre los caribes. 
Palabras iniciales de Domingo 
Casanovas. Caracas, Universidad 
Central, Facultad de Filosofia y 
Letras, Instituto de Antropologia 
y Geografia. 

Links various traits of human sacri- 
fice (such as flaying, cardiac sacri- 
fice, arrow "Morning Star" sacri- 
fice, communion and ritual canni- 
balism, importance of the thigh) in 
a Tlacaxipeualiztli complex, dis- 
tributed from the Andes to North 
America, with Carrb occurrences 
midway between the former and 

Adams, Robert M., Jr. 

1953 Some small ceremonial structures 
of Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 9. 

Shrines, platforms, and associated 
features described and well illus- 

Agranovsky, Anatoli 

1956 An adventure in research: deciph- 
ering the ancient Mayan inscrip- 
tions. USSR, Sept. 1956, pp. 7, 58- 

A great deal of boasting about Yuri 
Knorozov's discovering "the Key" to 
Mayan hieroglyphic writing, but 
no actual examples or other data 
are provided. 

Aguilar p., Carlos H. 

1948 Joya excepcional de las culturas 
del septentrion meso-americano 
encontrada en Nicoya. Mus. Nac, 
no. 1, pp. 16-19. 

Description of a jade pendant, pos- 
sibly representing a man-bat and 
thought to be imported from Mexico 
or the Maya area. 

1953 Retes, un deposito arqueologico 
en las faldas del Irazu. San Jose, 
U. Costa Rica, Seccion Tesis de 
grando y ensayos, 5. 

Cache of aboriginal artifacts dating 
to about 1564, after Spanish con- 
tact. There are stone, wooden, and 
cotton remains; detailed description 
of carved drum types. 

Alcina Franch, Jose 

1957 Mexican mythology in ceramic 

stamps. Antiq. Surv., 2:5-20. 

Aztec deities depicted on pottery 




Allenspach, Max 

1956 Yucatan. Atlantis, 28:187-200. 

General account with eight pages 
of magnificent photographic repro- 
ductions of Mayan ruins by Irmgard 

Alvarado TezozomoCj Fernando 

1949 Cronica mexicayotl. Adrian Leon, 
tr. U. Nac. Autonoma de Mexico, 
Inst. Hist, en colaboracion con el 
Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist. 

Well-indexed transcription and 
Spanish translation of an early 17th- 
century Nahuatl history. 

Amabilis Dominguez, Manuel 

1956 La arquitectura precolombina en 
Mexico. Mexico, Orion. 

Mystical approach to the subject, 
from an Atlantis theory of origins 
to a Vitruvian-like "ad quadratum" 
analysis of architectural propor- 
tions. Profusely illustrated with in- 
ferior halftones. 

Anales Mexicanos 

1948 Anales Mexicanos, nos. 3, 4. Me- 
xico, Vargas Rea Biblioteca Apor- 
tacion Historica, pp. 69-124. 

Chimalpopoca translation of two 
Nahuatl manuscripts. 

Anales de Tlaltilolco 

1950 Anales de Tlaltilolco, Niimero uno. 
Anonimo indigena, traducido al 
espanol por Porfirio Aguirre. Col. 
Amatlacuilotl. Mexico, Vargas 

Spanish and Nahuatl in parallel 

Anales Tolteca Chichimeca 

1949 Anales Tolteca Chichimeca. Col. 
Amatlacuilotl. Mexico, Vargas 

Chimalpopoca translation of an 
anonymous Nahuatl manuscript. 

Anales Toltecas 

1949 Anales Toltecas. Col. Amatla- 
cuilotl. Mexico, Vargas Rea. 

Aubin translation of an anonymous 
Nahuatl manuscript. 

Anderson, A. H. 

1954 Archaeology in British Honduras 
today. Pro. 30th Intl. Cong. Am., 
pp. 32-35. 

Recommends seven sites for future 


Anderson, Arthur J. O. 

1948a Home diversions of the Aztec 
chief. Palacio, 55:125-27. 

Account of Aztec amusements, from 
the Nahuatl version in the Floren- 
tine Codex. 

1948b Pre-Hispanic Aztec colorists. Pa- 
lacio, 55:20-27. 

Translated extracts from the Flor- 
entine Codex, with notes by the 

Andrews, E. Wyllys 

1951 The Maya Supplementary Series. 
In Tax, 1951, pp. 123-41. 

Invaluable summary, in chart form, 
of all known Maya hieroglyphic 
texts containing Iniiial Series in 
association with the stylized pre- 
sentation of lunar astronomical 
data (the "Supplementary Series"), 
with readings of each inscription, 
qualifying notes, and bibliographic 

Annals of the Cakchiquels 

1953 The annals of the Cakchiquels. 
Tr. from the Cakchiquel Maya by 
Adrian Recinos and Delia Goetz. 
Title of the lords of Totonica- 
pan. Tr. from the Quiche text into 
Spanish by Dionisio Jose Chonay; 
English version by Delia Goetz. 
Oklahoma Press. 

A fine English version of the Span- 
ish edition of 1950. 


1948 Documentos del Archivo del Co- 
legio Imperial de Santa Cruz. In 
Tlatelolco . . . , X. 

Apenes, Ola 

1953 Las paginas 21 y 22 de Codice Bor- 
bonico. Yan, 2:102-04. 

Analysis of the Borbonicus pages 
containing the 52 years of the Xiuh- 
molpilli cycle bearing their respec- 
tive day names and the appropriate 
Lord of the Night. Also presents a 
method of determining the name of 
the year from its position in the 
Mexican calendar. 

Arellano, A. R. V., and Florence Mijller 
1948 La cueva encantada de Chima- 

lacatlan, Morelos. B. Soc. Mex. 

Geog. Estad., 66:481-91. 

Stratified cave yielding, in its low- 
est layer, bones of Pleistocene 
fauna; in a higher layer, calcined 
bones and carbonized materials but 
no pottery; in the topmost stratum 
a mixture of potsherds which the 
authors assign to all major prehis- 
toric periods from Monte Alban I 
through Aztec IV and historic times. 
Illustrations and table. 




Luis Aveleyra Arroyo de Ajota 
1953 A Plain view point from northern 
Tamaulipas. Am. Antiq., 18:392-93. 

The first Plainview point so far 
recorded from Mexico, and the 
southernmost reported specimen. 

Armenta Camacho, Juan 

1957 Hallazgos prehistoricos en el valle 
de Puebla. Cent. E.sfnd. Hist. Pue- 
hla, no. 2. 

Stone and fossil bone artifacts of 
Palaeo-Indian age. 

Armillas, Pedro 

1947-48 Notas sobre sistemas de cultivo 
en Mesoamerica A. Inst. Nac. 
Antr. Hist., 3:85-113. 

Study of cultivation by irrigation in 
the Rio de las Balsas region. 

1948a Arqueologia central, occidental y 
de Guerrero. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 211-16. 

Conclusions based on papers read 
at the 1946 Round Table, recogniz- 
ing archaeological provinces in the 
area discussed. Chronological chart, 
and a statement of problems. 

1948b Arqueologia del occidente de 
Guerrero. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 74-76. 

Concise outline of archaeological 
data on the Balsas Medio, Alto Rio 
del Oro, and Costa Grande with a 
chart correlating these with other 
regions of Mexico. 

1948c Fortalezas mexicanas. Cuad. Am., 

Preceded by a brief outline of Mid- 
dle American prehistoric culture 
trends by periods, this article as- 
sembles information on many late 
prehistoric ruins interpreted as for- 
tresses, with illustrative plans, 
cross-sections, and photographs. 

1950a Pozuelos en peiias en el estado de 
Guerrero. Mesoamer. Notes, 2: 

Describes pitted rocks in Guerrero 
which he believes were mortars 
used in the preparation of food. 
Presents some brief comparative 
material, from Argentina and Chile 
to California and Kentucky. 

1950b Teotihuacan, Tula y los toltecas. 
Las culturas post-arcaicas y pre- 
aztecas del centro de Mexico. Ex- 
cavaciones y estudios, 1922-1950. 
Runa, 3:37-70. 

History of investigations at Teoti- 
huacan and adjacent or related 
sites. Accounts of the most recent 

years of work are more detailed, 
and include excellent illustrations 
of newly discovered murals, fagade 
friezes, and pottery. The last section 
presents the phase names for Teoti- 
huacan cultural chronology and 
their characteristics. 

1950c Visita a Copan. Cuad. Am., 25: 
General description of Copan, par- 
ticularly its stelae, relative to the 
general development of Maya pre- 
historic culture. 

1951a Mesoamerican fortifications. An- 
tiquity, 25:77-86. 

Geographical distribution of post- 
Classic period fortifications. Palis- 
ades had a split distribution (east 
and west) ; hilltop and mesa settle- 
ments were frequent in all moun- 
tainous districts; walled cities on 
level ground occurred in central 
Mexico and Yucatan; extended 
frontier fortification systems coin- 
cided with larger and more integrat- 
ed political units. See also Armillas, 
1948c, for a previous article on the 
same topic. 

1951b Tecnologia, formaciones socio- 
economicas y religion en Meso- 
america. In Tax, 1951, pp. 19-30. 
Inventory of some broad cultural 
characteristics of the main prehis- 
toric phases in Middle America, a 
somewhat revised version of his 
A sequence of cultural develop- 
ment in Mesoamerica (1948). Re- 
affirms his hypotheses regarding 
changing economic bases of Meso- 
american cultural patterns, warns 
against interpreting evidences of 
destruction at the close of the Clas- 
sic phase as implying abrupt 
change in social structure; suggests 
that pyramids were used as funer- 
ary mounds before becoming temple 

1957 Cronologia y periodificacion de la 
historia de America precolombina. 
Escuela nacional de antropologia 
e historia. Supp. to Tlatoani, 1. 
Attempts to condense data on enor- 
mous period of time over extensive 
area into 61 pages. Palaeo-Indian, 
pre-agricultural, proto-agricultural 
cultures of the western hemisphere 
reviewed with reference to dating. 

— , Angel Palerm, and Eric R. Wolf 
1956 A small irrigation system in the 

valley of Teotihuacan. Am. Antiq., 


Large storage dam, small diversion 
dam, dam for canal intake, and an 
irrigation canal, possibly pre-Co- 
lumbian. These discoveries are of 
utmost importance to questions of 
the role of irrigation in the rise of 
high civilizations. 



See West, Robert C, and 

AvELEYRA Arroyo de Anda, Luis 


1948 El "hombre de Tamazulapan." 
Mem. Acad. Mex. Hist., 7:267-79. 

Careful weighing of the geological 
and archaeological evidences for and 
against the great antiquity of a 
skeleton apparently associated with 
both elephant and pottery. Con- 
cludes that the skeleton is contem- 
poraneous with the pottery and that 
the latter is possibly of the Tula- 
Mazapa (late) horizon. 

1949 Sobre dos notables puntas de 
proyectil de la cuenca de Mexico. 
Mex. Antig., 7:514-21. 

Description and speculations con- 
cerning the age and relationships of 
two pressure-flaked obsidian points 
from the vicinity of Chalco and 
Tepexpan, respectively; they have 
Yuma-like and Folsom-Clovis-like 

1950 Prehistoria de Mexico. Revision 
de prehistoria mexicana. El hom- 
bre de Tepexpan y sus problemas. 
Prologos de W. Du Solier y Pablo 
Martinez del Rio. Mexico, Edi- 
ciones Mexicanas. 

Description of the various discov- 
eries related to the matter of pre- 
Formative period "ancient man" in 

1955a Contemporaneidad del hombre 
con fauna extinguida en el Pleis- 
toceno Superior de Mexico. A. 
Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 7:29-39. 

Reviews history of early man dis- 
coveries in Mexico, from Penon to 
Tepexpan and Iztapan. 

1955b El segundo mamut fosil de Santa 
Isabel Iztapan, Mexico, y arte- 
factos asociados. Apendice por 
Manuel Maldonado-Koerdell. Mex- 
ico, Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., Direc- 
cion de Prehistoria, Pub. 1. 

Report on the important discovery 
of human artifacts associated with 
mammoth in Mexico. 

1956 The second mammoth and asso- 
ciated artifacts at Santa Isabel 
Iztapan, Mexico. Am. Antiq., 22: 

Abridged English translation of his 


— , AND Manuel Maldonado-Koerdell 
1952 Asociacion de artefactos con ma- 
mut en el Pleistocene superior de 
la cuenca de Mexico. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 13:3-30. 

Hunting and butchering tools asso- 
ciated with mammoth remains at 
Santa Isabel Iztapan. 

1953 Association of artifacts with mam- 
moth in the Valley of Mexico. Am. 
Antiq., 18:332-40. 

English version of their 1952. 

, Manuel Maldonado-Koerdell, and 

Pablo Martinez del Rio 

1956 Cueva de la Candelaria. Con la 
colaboracion de Ignacio Bernal y 
Federico Elizondo Saucedo. V. 1. 
Mem. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., no. 5. 

Thorough study of the geography, 
geology, vegetation, and artifacts of 
a Coahuila cave. 

See Arguedas R. de la Borbolla, Sol, and 

, 1953; Maldonado-Koerdell, 

Manuel, and , 1949. 

AviLES Solaris, Jose 

1957 Descifracion de la piedra del ca- 
lendario. Mexico. 

Symbolic, religious, and astronomi- 
cal significance of Calendar Stone 
inscriptions. Suggests scale of pre- 
historic Mexican linear measure- 


Baity, Elizabeth Chesley 

1951 Americans before Columbus. New 
York, Viking. 

A popular general book of Ameri- 
can archaeology, containing three 
chapters on Middle and South 

Balser, Carlos 

1953 El jade precolombino de Costa 
Rica. San Jose, Museo Nacional. 

Brief study of techniques of manu- 
facture, styles, and significance of 
jade objects from prehistoric Costa 
1955 A fertility vase from the Old Line, 
Costa Rica. Am. Antiq., 20:384-86. 

In this representation of the mythi- 
cal origin of woman, Balser sees evi- 
dence of Antillean influence on the 
Linea Vieja. 

See Stone, Doris, and 


Barba de Pina Chan, Beatriz 

1956 Tlapacoya, un sitio preclasico de 
transicion. Acta Anthr., vol. 1, no. 

Chronological position and foreign 
relations, especially with Monte Al- 



ban II and Miraflores phase at 
Kaminaljuyu. Sees at Tlapacoya the 
beginnings of Mesoamerican urban- 
ism and of Teotihuacan cultural de- 

Barberena, Santiago I. 

1950 La gruta de Corinto. A. Mus. Nac, 

Consists chiefly of his interpretation 
of the symbolic significance of the 
hands which appear as petroglyphs 
at this site in the Department of 
Morazan, El Salvador. 

Barbour, George B. 

1957 A note on jadeite from Manzanal, 
Guatemala. Am. Antiq., 22:411-12. 
Visit to a source of pale green-gray 

Barlow, Robert H. 

1947-48 La fundacion de la Triple Ali- 
anza, 1427-1433. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 3:147-55. 

More important data on early 15th- 
century native Mexican history. 

1948a Apuntes para la historia antigua 
de Guerrero. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 181-90. 

Pre-Nahua, Mexican, and Spanish 
conquest history of the Provinces of 
Tepequacuilco and Cihuatlan, ac- 
cording to early sources. 

1948b Cuauhtlahtoa: el apogeo de Tlate- 
lolco. In Tlatelolco . . . , X. 

Excellent and well documented his- 
tory of Tlatelolco under the leader- 
ship of Cuauhtlahtoa in the 15th 

1948c El derrumbre de Huexotzinca. 
Cuad. Am., 39:147-60. 

Documentary study of Huexotzinca- 
Tlaxcalan relations, the alliance be- 
tween Huexotzinca and Tenoch- 
titlan, and its aftermath. 

1948d Lista razonada de los trabajos 
publicados en "Tlatelolco a traves 
de los tiempos," niimeros I-X in- 
clusive. In Tlatelolco . . . , X. 

1948e Un problema cronologico: la con- 
quista de Cuauhtinchan por Tlate- 
lolco. In Tlatelolco . . . , X. 

Clarifies an apparent documentary 
conflict by identifying Cuacuauh- 
pitzahuac in a battle scene pic- 
tured in the Historia Tolteca-Chi- 

1948f The Techialoyan Codices: Codex 
N, Codex of Santa Maria Tetelpan. 
Tlalocan, 2:283-84. 

Describes the contents of the 16th- 
century Tetelpan pictorial codex 
in the John Carter Brown Library 
in Providence. 

1948g Tres complejos de ceramica del 
norte del rio Balsas. In El Occi- 
dente de Mexico, pp. 91-94. 

Archaeological zones of the Teloloa- 
pan, Cocula, and Tepecoacuilco 
rivers, and the ceramic complex of 

1949a Anales de Tula, Hildago, 1361- 
1521. Tlalocan, 3:2-13. 

Transcription, translation into Span- 
ish, and notes on a Nahuatl manu- 
script treating of protohistoric Tula. 

1949b Las conquistas de Moteczuma 
Xocoyotzin. Mem. Acad. Mex. 
Hist., 8:159-72. 

The 43 major conquests by Motec- 
zuma during his reign in the epoch 
of the Triple Alliance, as revealed 
by native codices and other docu- 

1949c El Codice Azcatitlan. J. Soc. Am., 
n. s., 38:101-35. 

Description and interpretation of a 
native pictorial history of the Az- 
teca-Mexica, with an excellent 29- 
plate reproduction of the codex un- 
der separate cover. 

1949d The extent of the empire of the 
Culhua Mexica. U. California 
Press, Ibero-Americana, no. 28. 

The various domains and towns of 
the Culhua Mexica (more common- 
ly known as the "Aztec" empire), 
based largely on the Matricula de 
Tributes. Contains some related 
ethnographic material and data on 

1950 Codices and Mesoamerican pic- 
ture writing. A note on civil 
books. Mesoamer. Notes, 2: 107-17. 

Brief and elementary classification 
of pictorial manuscripts, apparently 
written for the beginning student. 

1954a El Codice de Tetelcingo, Guerrero. 
Yan, 3:65-68. 

Posthumously published, this is re- 
vised and edited by Fernando Hor- 
casitas. The tribute pages repro- 
duced in facsimile. 

1954b Las joyas de Martin Ocelotl. Yan, 

The treasures of a rich Indian who 
fell into the hands of the Inquisition, 
as depicted and described in early 




Berlin, Heinrich, and 
Me Afee, Byron, and 
Mc Afee, Byron, 

— , 1948; 

, 1948; 

and Fer- 

nando Horcasitas, 1952. 
For obituaries see Dibble, 1951b. 

Baron Castro, Rodolfo 

1948 Del "Lienzo de Tlaxcala" al "Co- 
dice de Comillas." R. Indias, ano 
9, no. 35, pp. 117-26. 

Account of the discovery that the 
Comillas codex was false (see Car- 
eer, 1950). 

Barra y Valenzuela, Pedro 

1953 Los nahoas; historia, vida y len- 
gua. Mexico, Bartolome Trucco. 

Introduction suitable for the begin- 
ning student. Almost half this book 
is devoted to language (grammar 
and vocabulary). 

Barrera y Alvarez, Gabriel de la 

1950 Chichen-Itza, Uxmal y Kabah en 
el arte maya. Mexico, Talleres 
Graficos de la Nacion. 

Photographic album with preface, 
foreword, and an introduction by 
Alfredo Barrera Vasquez. 

Barrera Vasquez, Alfredo 

1951 La historia de los mayas de Yuca- 
tan a traves de sus propias croni- 
cas. In Tax, 1951, pp. 119-22. 

The author's reconstruction of Yuca- 
tecan cultural history through com- 
parative study of the native chroni- 
cles convinces him that the Itza and 
Xiu occupations, and the so-called 
"Maya" and "Nahua" cultures of 
Yucatan were mere incidents in the 
long history of this area's really 
basic population, the "'milpa Maya," 
who were there before the 5th cen- 
tury and whose descendants are still 
there today. 

AND Sylvanus Griswold Morley 

1949 The Maya Chronicles. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Pub. 585, Contrib. 48. 

Transcription and reconstruction of 
the Maya text of the Books of Chi- 
1am Balam of Mani, Tizimin, and 
Chumayel, with chronological tables 
and historical commentary. The Itza 
are considered "Old Empire Maya" 
who reached northern Yucatan in 
the 5th century. 

AND Silvia Rendon (trs. and eds.) 

1948 El libro de los libros de Chilam 
Balam. Mexico, Fondo de Cultura 
Economica, Biblioteca Americana, 
Serie de Literatura Indigena. 
Spanish translation of the Chilam 
Balam books, with excellent intro- 
ductions, extensive footnotes, most 
useful synoptic tables and a very 
complete index. 

Barthel, Thomas S. 

1951 Maya-Astronomie. Lunare Insch- 
riften aus dem Siidreich. Zeit. 
Ethn., 76:216-38. 

Commentary on hieroglyphic texts, 
chiefly from the Usumacinta and the 
Peten, treating of the moon and the 
sun, the role of the sidereal month 
and Mercury. 

1952 Der Morgensternkult in den Dar- 
stellungen der Dresdener Maya- 
handschrift. Ethnos, 17:73-112. 

Another commentary on passages 
from the Dresden Codex shedding 
light on ancient Maya astronomy 
and religion. 

1953 Regionen des Regengottes. Ethnos, 

This paper interprets pages 65-69 
of the Dresden Codex. 

1954 Maya epigraphy: some remarks 
on the affix "al." Pro. 30th Intl. 
Cong. Am., pp. 45-49. 

Proposes the phonetic value of "al" 
for the element 19. 

1955 Maya-Palaeographik: die Hiero- 
glyphe Strafe. Ethnos, 30:146-51. 

Connects symbols of "word" and 
"stone" with the concept of pun- 
ishment in Maya hieroglyphic writ- 

1956 Die gegenwaertige situation in der 
Erforschung der Maya-Schrift. J. 
Soc. Am., n.s., 45:219-27. 

Reviews attempts to translate May- 
an glyphs, especially the phonetic 
schemes, and makes some broad 
suggestions regarding the general 
nature of the written language. 

1957 El estado actual en la investiga- 
cion de la escritura maya. B. Cent. 
Inv. Antr. Mex., 4:19-27. 

History of Maya epigraphic re- 
search and a searching critique of 
Knorozov's theories. Translated from 
German paper presented to Interna- 
tional Congress in Copenhagen in 




1955 Baseball in the year 1000? Mex. 
This Month, 1:14-15. 

Good pictures of Tarascan figurines. 

Bassetti, Gian 

1950 L'aquila e il serpente nell' Ame- 
rica degli Indies. Milano, Italy, 

Essentially this is a travel book, but 
with a considerable portion devoted 
to what the author himself calls a 
'"superficial" account of the prehis- 
tory and archaeological remains of 
Mexico and Guatemala. 

Bastien, Remy 

1951 The Pyramid of the Sun in Teoti- 
huacan. A new interpretation. In 
Tax, 1951, pp. 62-67. 

Exposes erroi's in previous recon- 
structions of the Sun Pyramid, chief 
among them Batres' five-terraced 
structure, which should have only 
four terraces. On the basis of fresco 
representations, Bastien gives the 
superstructure an elevated roof. 

Beidler, Paul 

1952 An architect in Mayaland. Nat. 
Hist., 61:440-45, 473-74. 

Popular account of a visit to Caracol 
(Xunan Tunich), British Honduras, 
the spectacular site investigated by 
the University Museum in Phila- 

Bennett, Wendell C. 

1951 Introduction. In Tax, 1951, pp. 

Excellent general discussion of 
"Nuclear America" and of interre- 
lationships between Mesoamerica 
and the central Andes. Reviews 
past and present methodology and 
suggests approaches for future re- 

Bennyhoff, J. A. 

See Meighan, C. W., and 


Berlin, Heinrich 

1950 La historia de los Xpantzay. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 2:40-53. 

Documents relating to a noble Cak- 
chiquel family of Tecpan, parts of 
which contain genealogical and geo- 
graphical (place names) data of in- 
terest comparable to those of the 
Annals of the Cakchiquels, the To- 
tonicapan Titulo, and the Popol 
Vuh. The translation is by Adrian 
Recinos. See Memorial de Solola. 

1951a Breves estudios arqueologicos: El 
Peten, Guatemala. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 3:1-8. 

Ruins near Carmelita; commentary 
on Lintel 7 of Piedras Negras. 

1951b La inscripcion del Templo de las 
Leyes en Palenque. A. Soc. Geog. 
Hist. Guat., 25:120-29. 

A re-examination and review of the 
hieroglyphic texts on the three gi-eat 
panels of the Temple of the In- 

1951c A survey of the Sola region in 
Oaxaca (Mexico). Ethnos, 16: 1-17. 
Notes on stone sculptures, some pot- 
tery specimens, and various ruins in 
an archaeologically little known re- 
gion of Oaxaca. 

195 Id El Templo de las Inscripciones VI 
de Tikal. Antr. Hist. Guat, 3: 33-54. 

The recently discovered sixth great 
temple of Tikal which, although its 
platform is only half as high as the 
smallest of the other five, is remark- 
able for its hieroglyphic inscriptions 
covering three sides. Stelae, altars, 
and associated caches are also de- 

1952a Excavaciones en Kaminal Juyii: 
Monticulo D-III-13. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 4:3-18. 

Account of excavations at an Aurora 
phase (Early Classic pre-Esperanza) 
structure at this famous site. 

1952b Novedades arqueologicas. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 4:41-42. 

Description of ruins and sculptures 
in the vicinity of Playitas, Izabal. 
Assigns main ruins to the period to 

1953a Archaeological reconnaissance in 
Tabasco. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Kept. 7. 

Notes on this little-known archae- 
ological region. Contains a useful 
map of sites. 

1953b A new temple at Tikal. Archae- 
ology, 6:82-86. 

Account of the discovery and a 
description of the sixth major 
pyramid recently discovered at this 
greatest of ancient Maya cities. 

1955a Apuntes sobre vasijas de Floras, 
El Peten. Antr. Hist. Guat., 7: 15-17. 
Brief description of pottery. 

1955b News from the Maya world. Eth- 
nos, 20:201-09. 

Notes on sites briefly visited in Ta- 
basco and Chiapas, with photo- 
graphs and transcriptions of sculp- 
tured inscriptions. 



1955c Selected pottery from Tabasco. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 126. 

Specimens not published in previous 
reports of his Tabasco survey. 

1956 Late pottery horizons of Tabasco, 
Mexico. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 
606, Contrib. 59. 

Description of Classic (Jonuta hori- 
zon) and late post-Classic (Cintla 
horizon) ceramics. Sees a shift to- 
ward Mexican influence in the lat- 

1957 A new inscription from the Tem- 
ple of the Foliated Cross at Palen- 
que. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 

Door jamb tablet dated 

— AND Robert H. Barlow 

1948 Anales de Tlatelolco. Unos anales 
historicos de la nacion mexicana y 
Codice de Tlatelolco. Mexico, An- 
tigua Libreria Robredo de J. Por- 
rua (Fuentes para la Historia de 
Mexico, no. 2). 

First Spanish edition of five im- 
portant 16th-century Nahuatl docu- 
ments relating to the Mexica-Tlate- 
lolca, previously translated into 
German by Mengin and also pub- 
lished in facsimile in Denmark. 
Berlin's translation and notes, Bar- 
low's analyses, and the excellent 
chronological charts and subject in- 
dex make this an extremely useful 
volume. Documents included in the 
anthology: (1) Lista de los reyes de 
Tlatelolco, (2) Lista de los reyes de 
Tenochtitldn, (3) Genealogia de los 
reyes de Azcapotzalco, (4) Suple- 
mento de la genealogia de los reyes 
de Azcapotzalco, (5) Historia de 
Tlatelolco desde los tiempos mas re- 

See Stromsvik, Gustav, E. D. Pollock, 
and , 1955. 

Bernal, Ignacio 

1947 Los calendarios de Duran. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 9: 125-32. 

Further discussion of the possible 
common origin of a group of related 
Mexican documents, based on calen- 
drical data therein. 

1947-48 La ceramica grabada de Monte 
Alban. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 

Incised pottery of the Classic period 
at Monte Alban, and its relations 
with Kaminaljuyu, El Tajin, and 
other ceramics. 

1948-49 Exploraciones en Coixtlahuaca, 
Oaxaca. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 10: 

Report on excavations of a late 
(Aztec III-Monte Alban V) site, and 
its relationships to other Mexican 
cultures. Particularly interesting are 
the subterranean tombs and the 
smaller site, Inguiteria, in which 
house sites were found close to the 
ceremonial structures. 

1949a La ceramica de Monte Alban III 
A. Tesis presentada para obtener 
el Doctorado en Letras, Seccion 
de Antr. en la U. Nac. Autonoma 
de Mex. 

Analysis and comparative study of 
pottery from one phase of Monte 
Alban. Favors the dates A.D. 200- 
600 for this period and the preceding 
transitional phase. 

1949b Distribucion geografica de las cul- 
turas de Monte Alban. Mex. Antig., 

Series of maps showing the distri- 
bution of Monte Alban pottery over 
four main periods. The first shows 
strong Gulf Coast and Olmec con- 
nections, the second Mayance, the 
third Teotihuacan, and Illb and IV 
native Zapotec. 

1950a Compendio de arte mesoameri- 
cano. Mexico, Ediciones Mexi- 
canas, Enciclopedia Mexicana de 
Arte, no. 7. 

One of the few books on Middle 
American art with an adequate in- 
troductory text on archaeology; in 
fact, one finds actually very little 
art analysis per se. Excellent photo- 
graphic reproductions. 

1950b The "Q complex" as seen from 
Monte Alban. Mesoamer. Notes, 2: 

Resurrects the old "Q Complex" to 
check it against traits at Monte 
Alban and reaches, of course, a 
negative correlation, since the gen- 
eralized traits are not examined for 
what is now known of their chron- 
ologically and geographically dis- 
tinct sub-varieties. 

1951 Nuevos descubrimientos en Aca- 
pulco, Mexico. In Tax, 1951, pp. 

Recently discovered objects of clay, 
shell, and copper show that pre- 
historic Acapulco was either not as 
poor, technologically speaking, or 
possibly not as culturally isolated, 
as once believed. 



1952a La arqueologia mexicana de 1880 
a la fecha. Cuad. Am., 65:121-45. 
Continues this interesting review of 
Mexican archaeological activities, 
with illustrations of typical dis- 
coveries of the period described. 

1952b Cien afios de arqueologia mexi- 
cana, 1780-1880. Cuad. Am., 62: 137- 

First of two articles reviewing the 
history of Mexican archaeological 
activities. Contains interesting old 
photographs and illustrations of 
archaeological ruins. 

1952c Introduccion a la arquelogia. Pro- 
logo de Alfonso Caso. Mexico, 
Fondo de Cultura Economica. 

Popular account of archaeological 
method in the Mexican field, as prac- 
ticed by Mexican archaeologists. 

-, 1952. 

See Caso, Alfonso, and 

Beyer, Hermann 

1955a La "piedra del sacrificio gladia- 
torio" del Museo Nacional de Ar- 
queologia. Mex. Antig., 8:87-94. 

Reprint of a 1920 article in Revista 
de Revistas, with an additional il- 

1955b La "procesion de los senores." 
decoracion del primer teocalli de 
piedra en Mexico-Tenochtitlan. 
Mex. Antig., 8:1-42. 

Posthumously published, this de- 
scribes a long stone bench excavated 
in Mexico City, representing a pro- 
cession of warriors. From a temple 
erected by Itzcoatl. 

1956 El color negro en el simbolismo de 
los antiguos mexicanos. B. Cent. 
Inv. Antr. Mex., 1:15-16. 

Reprint af article in Revista de Re- 
vistas, July 10, 1921. 

Black, Glenn A. 

1949 "Tepexpan Man," a critique of 
method. Am. Antiq., 14:344-46. 

More than a book review, this article 
criticizes at length the field tech- 
niques employed by De Terra at Te- 

Blom, Frans 

1945 Mayalandets Erobring, Koben- 
havn, Denmark, Jul. Gjellerups 

Translation by Jens Yde of Blom's 
Conquest of Yucatan, a general re- 
view of Maya culture, with excellent 

1950 A polychrome Maya plate from 
Quintana Roo. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 98. 

Description of a remarkable ceramic 
specimen, depicting two figures 
using blowguns, the Moan bird, and 
the Earth Monster. 

1954a La lapida de Chiapas. Ateneo, 5: 

Believes that the stela fragment of 
9th cycle date is from a Mayan site 
on the Lacanja or UsumacLnta. 

1954b Ossuaries, cremation and secon- 
dary burials among the Maya of 
Chiapas, Mexico. J. Soc. Am,., n.s., 
43: 123-35. 

Various examples of disposal of the 
dead in prehistoric Chiapas. 

1955 Coronel Modesto Mendez. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 7:3-16. 

— and Gertrude Duby 

1957 La selva lacandona: 
queologicas. Pt. 2. 
torial Cultura. 

andanzas ar- 
Mexico, Edi- 

FuUy illustrated and very useful 
resume of history of exploration and 
outstanding archaeological features 
of ruins in the Lacandone forest. 

BoGGs, Stanley H. 

1949 Tlaloc incensarios in the Baratta 
Collection, El Salvador. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 94. 

Description and discussion of hour- 
glass-shaped Tlaloc censers from the 
San Andres archaeological zone. 

1950a Archaeological excavations in El 
Salvador. In For the Dean, pp. 

History of investigations and sum- 
mary descriptions of various archae- 
ological sites in the Republic. 

1950b "Olmec" pictographs in the Las 
Victorias group, Chalchuapa 
archaeological zone, El Salvador. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 99. 
Group of pictographs with interest- 
ing resemblances to the style of cer- 
tain La Venta sculptures. 


1949 La numeracion maya. Tegucigalpa, 
Talleres Graficos Ariston. 

Brief description of Maya counting 
methods, with sections stressing 
units of measurement and sacred 



The Book of the People 

1954 The book of the people: Popol 
Vuh, the national book of the an- 
cient Quiche Maya. This English 
version made by Delia Goetz and 
Sylvanus Griswold Morley from 
the translation into Spanish by 
Adrian Recinos; with a pronounc- 
ing dictionary compiled by Lucille 
Kaufman Weil and with illus. by 
Everett Gee Jackson. Los Angeles, 

A deluxe edition of a 1950 book. See 

Popol Vuh, 1950. 

BoRGONio Gaspar, Guadalupe 

1954-55 Organizacion militar de los 
tenochca. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 

Undocumented brief notes. 

Borhegyi, S'iephan F. de 

1950a Estudio arqueologico en la falda 
norte del volcan de Agua. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 2:3-22. 

Very interesting attempt to deter- 
mine the site of Santiago de los 
Caballeros de Guatemala through 
archaeological methods. Included 
are ceramic studies and discussion 
of stone sculpture, the Pipil distri- 
bution, and other important prob- 

1950b A group of jointed figurines in 
the Guatemala National Museum. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 100. 
Description, comparative data, and 
discussion of pre-Classic doll-like 
jointed figurines from Kaminaljuyu 
and Tazumal. 

1950c Notas sobre sellos de barro exis- 
tentes en el Museo Nacional de 
Arqueologia y Etnologia de Guate- 
mala. Antr. Hist. Guat., 2: 16-26. 

Classification of seal types, probably 
from the Alta Verapaz and from 
Salcaja, Quezaltenango. Although 
both cylindrical and flat types are 
believed to have been made in pro- 
to-Classic times, the latter survived 
to post-Classic times and Borhegyi 
favors priority of appearance by the 

1950d Rim-head vessels and cone-shaped 
effigy prongs of the pre-Classic 
period at Kaminaljuyu, Guate- 
mala. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 

Interesting new interpretations of 
the function of certain ceramic 

1950e Tlaloc effigy jar from the Guate- 
mala National Museum. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 96. 

Description and archaeological signi- 
ficance of an anthropomorphic jar 
believed to have come from Kam- 

1951a Further notes on three-pronged 
incense burners and rim-head ves- 
sels in Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 105. 

Contains a useful checklist of 
Guatemala occurrences by depai't- 
m.ents, indicating period when 
known. Relates the early pre- 
Classic Kaminaljuyu specimens to a 
fertility and rain cult and then 
traces their subsequent spread and 

1951b El incensario de Guayasco. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 3:40-44. 

Classic period '"loop-nose" censer 
from the San Agustin Acasaguastlan 
region of El Progreso. Suggests 
close relationship between the Za- 
potec (Cocijo) and the Guatemala 
highland rain deities. 

1951c "Loop-nose" incense burners in 
the Guatemala National Museum. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 103. 

Description and classification of a 
group of incense burners with the 
handle placed at different levels of 
the upper zone. Suggests a possible 
stylistic sequence. 

195 Id A study of three-pronged incense 
burners from Guatemala and ad- 
jacent areas. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Note 101. 

Comparative study and chronology 
of a ceramic trait in an interesting 
ceremonial complex. 

1952a Notes and comments on duck-pots 
from Guatemala. Middle Am. Re- 
search Rec, 2: 1-16. 

Typological, chronological, and dis- 
tributional analysis of a peculiar 
ceramic form, with speculations as 
to its use. 

1952b Travertine vase in the Guatemala 
National Museum. Am. Antiq., 17: 

Description and possible prov- 
enience of a travertine vase repre- 
senting a kneeling monkey. 

1954a A brief essay on the development 
of Maya art. Palacio, 61:3-8. 

Short outline of Mayan prehistory 
and accompanying art development. 



1954b Cultura folk y cultura compleja 
en el area maya meridional. Cien. 
Soc, 5:50-63. 

A bold and stimulating attempt to 
test a socio-cultural hypothesis on 
the prehistoric (as well as historic) 
horizons, involving cultural inter- 
pretation of artifacts. Borhegyi 
addresses himself to the matter of 
the coexistence of "folk" and com- 
plex societies. 

1954c Installation of archaeological and 
ethnological material in the Guate- 
mala National Museum. Museum, 

Well- illustrated description (follow- 
ed by French translation) of the 
magnificent new Guatemalan mus- 

1954d Jointed figurines in Mesoamerica 
and their cultural implication. SW. 
J. Anthr., 10:268-77. 

Also published in Spanish (Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 6:1-9). Distribution of 
two types of jointed figurines, with 
interesting deductions and specula- 
tions as to their origin and use. 

1955a Chinese figurines in Mesoamerica. 
Am. Antiq., 20:286-88. 

Further discussion of the date and 
manner of arrival of Chinese figu- 
rines in Middle America. 

1955b Comments on incense burners 
from Copan, Honduras. Am. Antiq., 

A supposed tripod incense burner 
is shown to be a three-pronged type 

1955c Pottery mask tradition in Meso- 
america. SW. J. Anthr., 11:205-13. 

Geographical and chronological dis- 
tribution of clay masks and their 
probable uses. 

1956a The development of folk and com- 
plex cultures in the southern 
Maya area. Am,. Antiq., 21:343-56. 

Reviews the history of cultural de- 
velopment in Middle America, dis- 
tinguishing between domestic or 
folk elements and more formal, 
complex, and urban aspects. 

1956b El incensario de "tres asas" de 
Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 8:3-7. 

Another censer type, from Mira- 
flores of the highland Forma- 
tive period. 

1956c Settlement patterns in the Guate- 
malan highlands: past and pres- 
ent. In Willey, 1956a, pp. 101-06. 
Suggests that the factor determining 
modern settlement patterns in 
Guatemala originated in prehistoric 

1957a Incensario de Purulha, Guatemala. 
Antr. Hist. Guat., 9:3-7. 

From a Baja Verapaz cave, this cen- 
ser probably represents Quetzalcoatl 
and is of estimated post-Classic age. 

1957b Un raro cascabel de barro del 
periodo primitivo pre-Clascio en 
Guatemala. Antr. Hist. Guat., 9: 

From Las Charcas, these two rattles 
are of the Las Charcas or Providen- 
cia period. 

AND Nevin S. Scrimshaw 

1957 Evidence for pre-Columbian goiter 
in Guatemala. Am. Antiq., 23: 174- 

Formative period clay effigy whistle 
and figurine depicting goiters. 

Brainerd, George W. 

1948a Another falsified Maya codex. 
Masterkey, 22:17-18. 

Description of another forgery, re- 
vealed as such by J. E. S. Thomp- 
son's and Linton Satterthwaite's 
study of the internal evidence. 

1948b Decorative techniques of Maya 
pottery. Masterkey, 22: 131-34. 
Informative comparative study of 
incised dichrome pottery and its pos- 
sible significance in Middle and 
South American prehistoric con- 
tacts. lUustration. 

1949 Campeche. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Year Book 48, pp. 232-34. 

Excavations intended to link the 
ceramic sequences of Yucatan to 
those of the Peten, Guatemala: Iso- 
lates three chronological stages of 
Formative period pottery develop- 

1951 Early ceramic horizons in Yuca- 
tan. In Tax, 1951, pp. 72-78. 

Recognizes some 12 to 14 chronolo- 
gical phases in Yucatan ceramics, 
from Early Formative through the 
conquest and colonial periods. Evi- 
dences for a well-distributed and 
heavy Formative population, their 
sites occupied by later peoples. Mas- 
sive religious structures were erect- 
ed at least by Middle and Late 
Formative times. 



1953 Archeological findings. In Hatt, 
1953, pp. 108-19. 

Assigns the pottery and artifacts 
to the prehistoric Yucatecan cera- 
mic sequence. 

1954 The Maya civilization. Los An- 
geles, Southwest Museum. 

A fine series of articles that have 
been running in Masterkey, here 
published under one cover. 

Braunholtz, H. J. 

1951 The Oldman collection: Aztec 
gong and ancient Arawak stool. 
Brit. Mus. Q., 16:54-55. 

Slit gong or drtim (teponaztli) 
carved to represent owl. 

Brew, J. O. 

1954 Eighty-seventh report on the Pea- 
body Museum of Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Harvard University, 
1952-53. Reprinted from the Re- 
port of the President. Cambridge, 

Includes an account of the Museum's 
activities in British Honduras and 
Panama, remodeling of exhibits, and 
publications of the staff. 

Brito, Jose Giro 

1948 La pelagra y la extincion de la 
civilizacion maya. U. San Carlos, 
no. 11, pp. 87-102. 

Sees chronic malnutrition, due to 
the deficiencies of a corn diet, as an 
important weakening factor in 
Maya civilization. 

Bruman, Henry 

1948 The culture history of Mexican 
vanilla. Hisp. Am. Hist. R., 28:360- 

Includes references to the prehis- 
toric use of this flavor. 

BuLLARD, William R., Jr. 

1952 Residential property walls at 
Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 3. 

Every household had a fenced yard 
around its residence, in contrast to 
the temples and public structures. 
There was no formal arrangement 
of dwellings or streets in the resi- 
dential areas; winding narrow lanes 
afforded access to houses in the 
crowded districts. 

1954 Boundary walls and house lots at 
Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 13. 

Data bearing on house groups and 
settlement patterns, house lots, lanes 
and routes of passage, and boundary 
interpretations in archaeological ex- 
cavation. Map. 

See Willey, Gordon R., and , 1956; 

Willey, Gordon R., , and John 

B. Glass, 1955. 

Bunge, Edouard 

1948 L'annee solaire des anciens maya. 
Acts Intl. Cong. Am. (Paris, 1947), 
pp. 363-70. 

Study of the seasonal position of 
months of the original Maya year, 
concluding that these support the 
Goodman-Martinez-Thompson cor- 

Burland, Cottie a, 

1948 Some descriptive notes on MS 
Laud, Misc. 678, a pre-Columbian 
Mexican document in the Bod- 
leian Library of the University of 
Oxford. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., 
(Paris, 1947) , pp. 371-76. 

Excellent review of the probable 
provenience and the contents of this 
famous codex, with some stimulat- 
ing new suggestions as to themes. 

1949 Art and life in ancient Mexico. 
Oxford, England, Bruno Cassirer. 

With 92 excellent photographic re- 
productions of Mexican relics not 
frequently illustrated (from the 
British Museum, Royal Scottish Mu- 
seum, private collections in Great 
Britain, etc.) and a refreshingly writ- 
ten and, for the most part, authentic 
text on ancient Mexico, this is one 
of the best popular books on Middle 
American native art. 

1951a The picture books of ancient Mex- 
ico. Nat. Hist., 60:177-81. 

Beautifully illustrated introduction 
to the main Mexican codices. 

1951b The tree of the Mixteca. A short 
study of the historical codices of 
Mexico. In Tax, 1951, pp. 68-71. 

The rich symbolism, poetic ex- 
pressive qualities, and historical im- 
portance of the Mixtec and related 
codices, which may, on further 
study, reveal considerable knowl- 
edge of early (e.g., Toltec) culture. 



1952 In the House of Flowers. Ethnos, 

The stone sculpture of Xochicalco 
and its possible relationships. Sug- 
gests a spread of southern Mexican 
culture in late Teotihuacan times 
from Vera Cruz to the West Coast 
regions, closely influenced by Teoti- 
huacan in Guatemala, and in de- 
veloped form becoming the Toltec 
culture which overthrew Teotihua- 
can and built Xochicalco. 

1953 Magic books from Mexico. Har- 
mondsworth, England, Penguin 

Color reproductions of selected 
pages from prehistoric and early 
historic Mexican codices, with an 
introduction and notes on each page 

1954a The Atelco frescoes. New World 
Antiq., 10:6-9. 

Further interpretation of the Atelco 
frescoes at San Juan Teotihuacan, 

1954b The Toltec-style calendar of Mex- 
ico. Pro. 30th Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 

Turns to Xochicalco sculptured 
monuments for evidence of the 
origins and nature of later Aztec 
calendars, and discusses in particu- 
lar the intercalations necessary 
when astronomical corrections were 
applied at 52-year intervals of 20- 
day periods. 

1955 The Selden Roll; an ancient Mex- 
ican picture manuscript in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. Ber- 
lin, Verlag Gebr. Mann (Monu- 
menta americana, no. 2) . 

Reproduction and interpretation of 
the surviving portion of the late 
preconquest or early postconquest 
codex, with a German translation 
of the text. 

1957 Codex Borbonicus: pages 21 and 
22, a critical assessment. J. See. 
Am., 46: 157-63. 

Description and interpretation of the 
two pages with a meaning of their 
own: the Year Bearer days, their 
Lords of the Night, the central pic- 
tures dealing with the blessings of 
year beginnings, and with the pass- 
age of life in two phases as the 
Mexican priests saw it. 

— AND Karl Anton Nowotny 
1950 Further comments on the wooden 
figurine from Mexico. Am. Antiq., 

Suggestions regarding the symbol- 
ism and provenience of the Vienna 
Ethnographic Museum specimen de- 
scribed by Nowotny, 1949. 

BusHNELL, Geoffrey H. S. 

1951 Prehistoric America: comments 
on some C14 dates. Antiquity, 25: 

Significance of the first dates re- 
leased by W. G. Libby and J. R. 
Arnold. Includes Middle American 

BusTiLLO Carrillo, Antonio 

1957 Los mayas ante la cultura y la 
revolucion de Mexico. Mexico. 
An amateurish account of Maya cul- 
ture, which the beginning student 
had best avoid. 

Butler, Mary 

1951 Genuine lost color. Am. Antiq., 

Resist-painted vessels should be rec- 
orded and photographed soon after 
excavation, lor in certain types the 
decoration disappears in a relative- 
ly short time. 

Calendario cakchiquel 
1957 Calendario cakchiquel de los indios 
de Guatemala, 1685. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 9:17-29. 

Transcription of nn early document 
describing the Quiche calendar and 
comparing it to the native Mexican. 
Sample months of 20 days are cor- 
related with European dates. 

Callegari, Guido Valeriano 

1951 La donna nolle grandi civilta dell' 
America precolombina. Mem. R. 
Acad. Nac. Cien., 57:113-155. 

His comparative study leads him 
to the conclusion that in prehistoric 
Latin America, women were held in 
high esteem, in contrast to female 
status in the ancient eastern world. 

Camacho, Viriato 

1951 Apuntes sobre la personalidad de 
Doris Stone y su obra en Costa 
Rica. San Jose, Ernesto Ortiz. 
Appreciation and summary of the 
contributions of Doris Zemurray 
Stone to the Republic of Costa Rica, 
including her work in furthering in- 
digenous activities and a national 

Canals Frau, Salvador 

1955 Las civilizaciones prehispanicas 
de America. Buenos Aires, Edi- 
torial Sudamericana. 

The most successful and up-to-date 
general textbook on American 



archaeology as of 1955, it is well 
illustrated, methodically organized, 
and clearly presented. 

Canby, Joel S. 

1951 Possible chronological implica- 
tions of the long ceramic sequence 
recovered at Yarumela, Spanish 
Honduras. In Tax, 1951, pp. 79-85. 

Believes that the Honduras Classic 
(Ulua-Yojoa) culture lasted until the 
Conquest and that a "sloping hori- 
zon" of cultural development (high- 
landers culturally retarded) must be 
invoked to explain a contemporane- 
ity of highland "Archaic" with low- 
land Maya Early Classic. Yarumela 
yielded two pre-Usulutan occupa- 

Carcer, Mariano de 

1948 Ejemplares de arte plumario meji- 
cano y una falsificacion del "Lien- 
zo de Tlaxcala," descubierto re- 
cientemente en Espaha. R. Indias, 
aiio 9, pp. 91-116. 

Characteristics of the Comillas co- 
dex and other falsifications said to 
be the work of Jenaro Lopez, an 
artist who acquired considerable 
skill at this practice while copying 
Mexican codices in Europe in 1892. 
Among them are the "Codex Ham- 
maburgensis," the "Codex Hall," 
the two "La Granja" codices. 

1948-49 Ejemplares de arte plumario 
mexicano y una falsificacion del 
Lienzo de Tlaxcala descubierto re- 
cientemente en Espaha. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 10:99-113. 

Contains a description of nine fake 
codices. This article also appeared 
as his 1948. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 
1955 Ancient Maya paintings of Bo- 
namoak, Mexico. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Supp. Pub. 46. 

Excellent non-technical description 
and interpretation of the Bonampak 

Carrasco Pizana, Pedro 

1950 Los otomies. Cultura e historia 
prehispanicas de los pueblos meso- 
americanos de habla otomiana. 
Mexico, Inst. Hist. 

History, economy, and material cul- 
ture, social organization, religion, 
and geographical distribution of 
Otomi-speaking peoples in prehis- 
toric times. A most useful reference 
book, well indexed and with many 
illustrations from codices. 

Carrillo y Gariel, Abelardo 

1949 El Cristo de Mexicaltzingo. Tec- 
nica de las esculturas en cana. 
Mexico, Secretaria de Educacion 
Piiblica, Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., An- 
tropologia e Historia, Direccion de 
Monumentos Coloniales. 2 vols. 

Contains transcription and Spanish 
translation of parts of three Nahuatl 
codices (by Angel Maria Garibay 
K.) and an account of the interest- 
ing circumstances under which they 
were discovered. 

Carter, George F. 

1950 Plant evidence for early contacts 
with America. SW. J. Anthr., 6: 

Useful summary and review of the 
distribution and possible history of 
the sweet potato, Hihiscixs tiliaceus, 
yam, bottle gourd, cotton, maize, and 
certain cosmopolitan weeds, con- 
cluding that frequent and long-con- 
tinued prehistoric contacts took 
place both ways across the Pacific, 
between Asia and the New World. 
"Surely our picture of the origin 
and growth of the Middle American 
high cultures can no longer rest on 
the easy assumption of absence of 
extensive and ancient Old World 

1957 The American civilization puzzle. 
Johns Hopkins Mag., 8:9-13, 20-22. 

Popular discussion of evidence for 
trans-Pacific pre-Columbian con- 
tacts, with a checklist of relevant 

Caso, Alfonso 

1949a El mapa de Teozacoalco. Cuad. 
Am., 47:145-81. 

Reproduction and interpretation of 
a geographical-historical Mixtec 
map of 1580, which served as the 
key to the reading of the many 
genealogical manuscripts of this re- 

1949b Una urna con el dios mariposa. 
Mex. Antig. 7:78-95. 

Excellent analysis of the butterfly- 
god motif in Middle America, with 
particular attention to a specimen 
from Atlatlauca, Mexico. 

1950a De la necesidad de la critica his- 
torica para interpretar los eclipses 
de [sic] sol en los manuscritos 
mexicanos. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 

Reply to Weitzel's article on the 
correlation of Aztec and Christian 
calendars as tested by eclipse data 
in codices. See Weitzel, 1950. 



1950b Explicacion del reverse del Codex 
Vindobonensis. Mem. Col. Nac, 

Explanation and commentary for 
the 13 pages that contain illustra- 
tions. An excellent summary of the 
historical data on the first three 
dynasties of Tilantongo, corroborat- 
ing similar sections of the Codices 
Bodley and Nuttall. Contains photo- 
graphic reproductions of the 1929 
facsimile edition and two useful 
tables of genealogy and chronology. 

1951 Base para la sincronologia mix- 
teca y cristiana. Mem. Col. Nac, 

Correlates dates of historical events 
in the Bodley and Selden II codices 
with the European calendar over a 
period of 864 years. Tables of Bod- 
ley, Selden II, and Vindobonensis 
(verso) dates and a general table 
of Mixtec-Christian calendar corre- 

1952 Un cuauhxicalli del dies de la 
muerte. Mem. R. Acad. Nac. Cien., 

Interpretation of stone sculptures 
from Tenochtitlan. Illustrated. 

1953a Un problema de interpretacion. 
Yan, 2:105-07. 

Tests the hypothesis of Lizardi 
(1953) and Apenes (1953) by three of 
its implications and finds it does not 
correspond to historically known 
dates. Suggests that while the year 
may not have begun with the day 
whose name it bore, the day may 
have determined the Lord of the 
Night accompanying that year. 

1953b El pueblo del sol. Mexico, Fondo 
de Cultura Economica. 

With fine illustrations, many in 
color, by Miguel Covarrubias, this 
expansion of Caso's earlier work. 
La religion de los aztecas, is a pop- 
ularly written though no less au- 
thentic study of Mexican prehistoric 

1954 Interpretacion del codice Gomez 
de Orozco. Mexico, Talleres de 
Impresion de Estampillas y Valo- 

A post-European but early fragment 
of a codex probably from the Mixtec 
region of Oaxaca, although said to 
come from Cuicatlan. Includes a fine 
reproduction in natural color. 

1955 Der Jahresanfang bei den Mixte- 
ken. Baessler Arch., 3:47-53. 

List of 105 dates from the Nuttall 
Codex suggests that the Mixtecs 
named their year from its first day, 
in Mayan fashion. 

1956a Los barrios antiguos de Tenoch- 
titlan y Tlatelolco. Mem,. Acad. 
Mex. Hist., 15:7-62. 

Extent and location of the ancient 
city barrios, based on careful analy- 
sis of early maps and other sources. 
Two large folding maps, in color. 

1956b El calendario mixteco. Hist. Mex., 

The outstanding authority on the 
Mixtec calendar summarizes his 
findings in one general article. 

1956c La cruz de Topiltepec, Tepozcolu- 
la, Oaxaca. In Estud. Antr., pp. 

Interpretation of the sculptures and 
inscriptions, including a Morning 
Star scaffold sacrifice. 

1957 Lienzo de Yolotepec. Mem,. 
Nac, 3:41-55. 


Description and interpretation of a 
geographical, historical, and genea- 
logical codex from Mixtec Oaxaca, 
first published by Penafiel, and 
now in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York. 


1952 Urnas de Oaxaca. Mem. Inst. Nac. 
Antr. Hist., no. 2. 

Exhaustive analysis of the famous 
urns of Oaxaca, classifying them ac- 
cording to the deities and associated 
figures represented, and according 
to chronological epoch. Magnificent- 
ly illustrated, this book derives a 
tremendous amount of ethnological 
data from archaeological relics. 

Castellanos, Daniel 

1954 Hallazgos arqueologicos en la re- 
gion de Chimalhuacan. Yan, 3:51- 

Pottery and stone artifacts. 

Castillero R., Ernesto J. 

1951 Descubrimientos arqueologicos en 
la Republica de Panama. R. Indias, 

Brief account of stone sculptures 
and archaeological activities. 

1952 Descubrimientos arqueologicos en 
la Republica de Panama. R. Indias 

Account of recent investigations by 
Stirling, Willey, Lothrop, and others. 



Castillo Torre, Jose 
1955 Per la serial de Hunab Ku. Reflejos 
de la vida de los antiguos mayas. 
Mexico, Manuel Porrua (Biblio- 
teca mexicana, no. 15). 

A varied selection of topics from the 
origin of man in America to the 
tonalamatl, Quetzalcoatl, and even 
epochs like "the New Empire," are 
discussed rather superficially. This 
book must be intended to interest 
the beginner rather than the ad- 
vanced student of the Maya. 

-, 1953. 

Castro, Carlo Antonio 
See Weitlaner, Roberto, and 

Catalogo de obras . . . 

1954 Catalogo de obras escritas en len- 
guas indigenas de Mexico o que 
tratan de ellas. De la biblioteca 
particular de Salvador Ugarte. 
Prologo de Daniel Kuri Breiia. 
2d ed. Mexico, Offset Vilar. 

Useful listing of a private library's 
holdings on native Mexican lan- 
guages. Some new titles have been 
added to the 1949 listing. 

Cerezo Dardon, Hugo 

1951 Breve historia de Tikal. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 3: 1-8. 

The Avandano and Mendez accounts 
of 1696 and 1848, respectively, with 
brief notices of other visits. 

See Rubin de la BorboUa, Daniel F., and 
, 1953. 

Chamberlain, Robert S. 
1951 The pre-Conquest tribute and 
service system of the Maya as 
preparation for the Spanish repar- 
timiento-encomienda in Yucatan. 
U. Miami Hisp. Am. Studies, no. 

"From all we know of the tribute 
and service system of the Maya, as 
illustrated by information available 
from existing sources, it seems clear 
that the natives of Yucatan were far 
from unprepared for the reparti- 
miento-encomienda system which 
the Spaniards imposed on them." 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel 

1955 Chilam Balam de Chumayel. Livre 
de . . . Traduit de I'espagnol et pre- 
sente par Benjamin Peret. Paris, 

In addition to line drawings from 
the original, there are several photo- 
graphic halftones of Chichen Itza 
and Uxmal. 

Chimalpahin, Domingo 

1950 Diferentes historias originales de 
los reynos de Culhuacan y Mexico, 
y de otras provincias. Ubersetzt 
und erlautert von Ernst Mengin. 
Hambtirg, Germany, Museum fiir 
Volkerkunde in Hamburg (Mit- 
teilungen, no. 22). 

Transcription and German transla- 
tion of the Chimalpahin Nahuatl 
manuscript in the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale, Paris, with an historical and 
bibliographical introduction and a 
useful index of person, place, and 
ethnic names. Also published in 
Copenhagen, Einar Munksgaard. 

Chinchilla Aguilar, Ernesto 

1955 Filisola en Guatemala. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 7:37-53. 

Chowning, Ann 

1956 A round temple and its shrine at 
Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 34. 

Includes description and discussion 
of interesting sculpture and stucco 
figure. Plans, sections, and photo- 

, AND Donald E. Thompson 

1956 A dwelling and shrine at Maya- 
pan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 33. 

Another current report of excava- 
tions at Mayapan. 

Christensen, Ross T. 

1950 Ancient diffusion from Mesoamer- 
ica to the "Mound Area" of east- 
ern United States: an annotated 
bibUography. B. U. Archaeol. Soc, 

Inclines toward the view that there 
was an actual ethnic movement 
from the region of Tamauhpas and 
San Luis Potosi, through the Gil- 
more Corridor of Texas, to the east- 
ern U. S. at the close of the Forma- 
tive period and thereafter. 

Codex Mexicanus 

1952 Codex mexicanus. Biblioteque 
Nationale de Paris, no. 23-24. Paris, 
Soc. Am. 

Excellent facsimile reproduction, 
with no commentary. 



CoE, Michael D. 

1956 The funerary temple among the 
classic Maya. SW. J. Anthr., 12: 

If, as seems increasingly likely, 
Middle American pyramids were 
funerary monuments, the political 
power of individuals was much 
greater than once supposed, pos- 
sibly comparable to that of the 
divine royalty of ancient Egypt. 

1957a The Khmer settlement pattern: a 
possible analogy with that of the 
Maya. Am. Antiq., 22:409-10. 

The Khmer city was a cult center 
supported by produce and labor of 
the hinterland, in a tropical forest 
civilization which had, however, 
intensive agriculture. 

1957b Cycle 7 monuments in Middle 
America: a reconsideration. Am. 
Anthr., 59:597-611. 

Further support for the contem- 
poraneity of Cycle 7 dates outside 
the Classical Maya area. Author be- 
lieves the La Venta Olmecs invented 
the Long Count and dated stone 

-, 1949, 1956. 

See Coe, William R., and 

CoE, William R., II 

1952 A possible Early Classic site in 
northern Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 108. 

Ruins near Colonia Yucatan, north 
of Tizimin, show Early Classic archi- 
tectural traits. 

1955a Early man in the Maya area. Am. 
Antiq., 20:271-73. 

Warns that certain supposedly 
ancient artifacts in the Peten and at 
Concepcion, Campeche, are not yet 
demonstrated to be so. 

1955b Excavations in El Salvador. B. 17. 
Mils., 19:14-21. 

Preliminary account of investiga- 
tions in pre-Classic or Formative 
period mounds at El Trapiche. 

1957 A distinctive artifact common to 
Haiti and Central America. Am. 
Antiq., 22:280-82. 

The tanged elongated fUnt blade, 
possibly a dagger. 

— , AND Michael D. Coe 

1949 Some new discoveries at Coba. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 93. 
Discovery of two sacbes and further 
notes on features previously describ- 
ed by E. W. Andrews. 

1956 Excavations at Nohoch Ek, British 
Honduras. Am. Antiq., 21:370-82. 

Formative through Late Classic se- 
quence at a minor ceremonial site. 

Collier, Donald 

1957a Diorama show^s colorful Maya 
dedication ceremony. B. Chicago 
Nat. Hist. Mus., 28:3, 8. 

Picture and description of an exhibit 
based on ancient life at Tikal, 

1957b A distinctive artifact common to 
Haiti and Central America. Am,. 
Antiq., 22:280-82. 

Tanged elongated flint blade, pos- 
sibly a dagger. 

Comas, Juan 

1954 Aportaciones del sureste de Asia 
y de Oceania al poblamiento de 
America. Yan, 3:75-76. 

Brief resume of some theories re- 
garding origins of American peoples 
and cultures. 

1956 Y eut-il des negres en Amerique 
avant Colomb? B. Soc. Suisse Am., 

After summarizing Weitzberg's hy- 
pothesis that a Moslem expedition 
reached America in the early 14th 
century, Comas gives six early ref- 
erences to black-skinned people in 
the Antilles, southern Mesoamerica, 
and northern South America. 

1957 Principales contribuciones indi- 
genas precolombinas a la cultura 
universal. Am. Indig., 17:39-85. 

The inventory includes agricultural 
techniques and crops, metallurgy, 
paper, calendar systems and mathe- 
matical concepts, religious beliefs, 
literature, and philosophy. Full and 
useful bibliography. Also issued 
separately in special edition. 

Contreras, Eduardo 

See Drucker, Philip, and 


Cook de Leonard, Carmen 

1950 Figurillas de barro de Santiago 
Tlatelolco. In Tlatelolco . . . , XI. 
Figurines from excavations, includ- 
ing a discussion of the identity of 
various deities represented. 

1952a El museo de Villahermosa. Tlato- 
ani, 1:26-31. 

Contains brief description and pho- 
tographs of a 9th-cycle stela from 
Moral, Tabasco, and other sculpture. 



1952b Dos extraordinarias vasijas del 
Museo de Villa Hermosa, Tabasco. 
Yan, 3:83-104. 

Magnificently illustrated in color as 
well as black-and-white, this article 
describes two remarkable ceramic 
specimens, a Tepeaca urn and a 
Tabasco (possibly Jaina) vase, to- 
gether with abundant comparative 
material and suggested interpreta- 

1955 Una "maqueta" prehispanica. Mex. 
Antig., 8: 169-91. 

Suggests that rock carvings at Santa 
Cruz Acalpixcan may have been 
architectural plans for construction 
of ceremonial structures. Data and 
speculations regarding methods of 
planning buildings in prehistoric 

1956 Dos atlatl de la epoca teotihua- 
cana. In Estud. Antr., pp. 183-200. 

Most iinusually well-preserved 
wooden spearthrowers from a site 
south of Cuautla, Morelos. Also de- 
scribes apparently associated pot- 
tery and other artifacts. 

1957 Excavaciones en la plaza no. 1, 
"Tres Palos," Ostoyohualco, Teoti- 
huacan. B. Cent. Inv. Antr. Mex., 

Tests in a small ceremonial plaza 
yielded Teotihuacan I pottery 
similar to that in the Temple of the 
Sun fill, and in at least one case 
similar to Monte Alban I. 

AND Ernesto Lemoine V. 

1954-55 Materiales para la geografia 
historica de la region Chalco-Ame- 
cameca. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 14: 

Early native sources and documents 
and field investigations bearing on 
this area. 

CooKE, T. Dickerson 

1951 Mayan hand prints: their signifi- 
cance still a mystery to this maga- 
zine. Chicago, Inst. Applied Sci., 
Finger Print and Identijication 
Mag., 33: 15-20, 31. 

Description and review of specula- 
tions regarding the handprints on 
the walls of buildings at Chichen 
Itza and Uxmal. The third and by 
far the most sensible in a series 
dating to 1947; the two previous 
articles, almost entirely fanciful, 
were written by other authors. 

Cordan, Wolfgang 

1955 Mexiko: Versuch iiber das Unzer- 
storbare. Berlin, Eugen Diede- 
richs Verlag. 

The text is not for the serious stu- 
dent, being very aimless and im- 
pressionistic. Fine photographic re- 

Corona Nunez, Jose 

1948a Esquema de deidades de los taras- 
cos antiguos. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 139-45. 

Summary of an earlier monograph, 
concluding that Tarascan religion 
was similar to that of other Middle 
American high civilizations. 

1948b Fuentes termales y medicinales 
del antiguo obispado de Michoa- 
can. In El Occidente de Mexico, 
pp. 137-38. 

Religious significance of thermal 
springs, their influence on demog- 
raphy, and their relationship to 
the temazcal. 

1952 ^Cual es el verdadero significada 
del Chac Mool? Tlatoani, 1:57-62. 

Believes these figures were messen- 
gers or "mail-box" receptacles for 
human hearts and other offerings 
placed there by priests to accompany 
their prayers to the home of the 

1954 Diferentes tipos de tumbas pre- 
hispanicas en Nayarit. Yan, 3:46- 

and chultun- 

Stone crisis, bottle- 
shaped tombs. 

1957 Mitologia tarasca. Mexico, Fondo 
de Cultura Economica. 

Gods, religious concepts and themes, 
and mythology as depicted in native 
sculptui-e, murals, pottery, and 
codices. Well illustrated. 

Covarrubias, Miguel 

1948 Tipologia de la industria de piedra 
tallada y pulida de la cuenca del 
rio Mezcala. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 86-90. 

On the basis of stone sculptures, 
recognizes a distinct archaeological 
province, and discusses the relation- 
ships between Olmec and local 
styles, and between Olmec and 
Teotihuacan, identifying a type 
transitional between the last two. 



1950 Tlatilco. El arte y la cultura pre- 
clasica del Valle de Mexico. Cuad. 
Am., 51:149-52. 

Sees Tlatilco as a Zacatenco site 
which later came under "Olmec"- 
style cultural influence. Believes 
that this Tlatilco-"01mec" culture is 
expressed in the Chavin of Peru. 

1954 El aguila, el jaguar y la serpiente. 
Tlatoani, 8-9:65-70. 

Hypotheses regarding the origins of 
various American cultures, with 
data supporting theories of Chinese 
contact. A chart correlates chro- 
nologies of American cultures. 

1957 Indian art of Mexico and Central 
America. New York, Knopf. 

As one would expect, this book is 
most valuable for its 12 fine color 
plates, 146 text illustrations, and 
64 pages of photographic reproduc- 

Crespo M., Mario 

1956 Titulos indigenas de tierras. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 8:10-15. 

Three relatively short Indian titles 
from the Guatemala highland: it is 
from documents like these, however, 
that we have considerable infor- 
mation on protohistoric native 
towns, rulers, and families. 

Cutler, Hugh C. 
See Whitaker, 

Thomas W. 


Richard S. MacNeish, 1957. 


Dahlgren DE Jordan, Barbro 

1954 La Mixteca, su cultura e historia 
prehispanicas. Mexico, Imprenta 
Universitaria (Cultura mexicana, 
no. 11). 

Assembles information from archae- 
ological and native documentary 
sources to reconstruct the history 
and culture of what is now Oaxaca 
and surrounding area. 

, AND Javier Romero 

1951 La prehistoria bajacaliforniana. 
Redescubrimiento de pinturas 
rupestres. Cuad. Am., 58: 153-78. 
Cave discoveries, including paint- 
ings (reproduced in color). 

Davalos Hurtado, Eusebio 

1951 Una interpretacion de los danzan- 
tes de Monte Alban. In Homenaje 
Caso, pp. 133-41. 

Evidence for the hypothesis that the 
sculptured "danzantes" represent 
male individuals ritually emascu- 
lated, possibly a genital sacrifice to 
gods of fertility. 

1954-55 La alimentacion entre los mex- 
icas. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 14: 103- 

Food that was available, and foods 
mentioned in the early chronicles. 

— , AND Javier Romero 

1950 Dictamen de los antropologos fisi- 
cos [acerca del hallazgo de Ichaa- 
teopan, Guerrero] . R. Mex. Estud. 
Antr., 11:204-25. 

Part of larger report by experts 
directed toward identification of 
burial claimed to be Cuauhtemoc. 

Davila Garibi, Jose Ignacio 

1949 Arbol genealogico de los monarcas 
aztecas. Entronques y enlaces con 
los reyes de Cualhuacan, Acolhua- 
can, Coatlinchan, Tlatelolco, Azca- 
potzalco y otros. Segunda edicion 
corregida y aumentada. Mexico, 
Editorial Cultura. 

Genealogical chart with notes. 

1950 Los cazcanes. Mexico, Editorial 

Protohistory and cultural-linguistic 
relationships of the Cazcanes of 
Jalisco and Zacatecas. 

1957 En torno del vocablo Chimalhua- 
can. Mexico, Editorial Cultura. 

The rulers of native Chimalhuacan 
were not truly confederated. Chi- 
males were shields. 

Delgado, Agustin 

1956 La arqueologia de la Chinantla. 
Tlatoani, 10:29-33. 

Map of sites, photographs of arti- 
facts, and a preliminary account of 
tombs and other discoveries. 

De Pierri, Kate P. 

1956 The Aztec corn goddess of Belle 
Meade. Tenn. Archaeol, 12: 1-4. 

Aztec stone image, of tuff presum- 
ably from the Mexican Plateau, said 
to have been excavated at a depth 
of 3 feet in a yard near Nashville, 
Tenn. Speculations regarding its his- 



De Terra, Helmut 

1947 Teoria de una cronologia geologica 
para el Valle de Mexico. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 9: 11-26. 

Correlation of geological and archae- 
ological periods for 12,000 years B.C. 
in the Valley of Mexico. 

1948 Chronological significance of the 
Zacatenco beach in the Valley of 
Mexico. In El Occidente de Mexi- 
co, pp. 122-23. 

On the basis of the rate of lake 
regression for the first century after 
the Spanish conquest, calculates 
that the Zacatenco I beach dates to 
1,000 B.C. and the Zacatenco II 
beach to about 500 B.C. 

1951a Comments on radiocarbon dates 
from Mexico. In Johnson, 1951, pp. 

Compares radiocarbon dates of Mid- 
dle American samples with archae- 
ological and geological estimates 
and concludes that the former sub- 
stantiate the latest time concepts of 
the latter. They provide consider- 
ably earlier dates for strata thought 
to be contemporaneous with farm- 
ing cultures and pyramid building. 
Same in Homenaje Caso, pp. 377-88. 

1951b Comments on radiocarbon dates 
from Mexico. In Homenaje Caso, 
pp. 377-88. 

The latest C14 dates for Middle 
America. De Terra believes these 
confirm geological and archaeologi- 
cal data, afford a correlation be- 
tween a pre-ceramic culture in Mex- 
ico and in southern Arizona, and 
provide a chronology for the Forma- 
tive and earlier periods, and for 
climatic changes which influenced 
early culture in Mexico. 

1951c Comments on radiocarbon dates 
from Mexico. Am. Antiq., 17:33-36. 
Discussion of the significance of the 
first radiocarbon dates released for 
Middle America. Although author 
notes numerous discrepancies, he 
tends to accept the dates. 

, Javier Romero, and T. D. Stewart 

1949 Tepexpan Man. Viking Fund Puh. 
Anthr., no. 11. 

Important report on geological his- 
tory of the Valley of Mexico in rela- 
tion to archaeology of this area from 
Upper Pleistocene to modern times. 
Detailed analyses of skeletal re- 
mains of Tepexpan and the preced- 
ing "San Juan" culture and later 
"Chalco" culture. The techniques 
of excavation and interpretation 
have since been severely criticized. 

DiAZ-BoLio, Jose 

1955 La serpiente emplumada. Eje de 
culturas. Merida, Registro de Cul- 
tura Yucateca. 

Considers all aspects of the plumed- 
serpent myth and its symbolism, 
which the author thinks is of Mayan 

1957 La piedra solar-crotalense llamada 
"Calendario azteca." Merida, Reg- 
istro de Cultura Yucateca. 

After considering certain elements 
of this famous stone, the author be- 
lieves that it is primarily identified 
with Quetzalcoatl and the sun. 

Diaz Vasconcelos, Luis Antonio 

1951 Tres aspectos de la convivencia 
juridica del maya. A. Soc. Geog. 
Hist. Gtiot., 25:206-24. 

Classification of the juridical sys- 
tems of mankind, and examination 
of the Maya system of Classic 
period and protohistoric times. As- 
signs the latter to a legal system 
relatively rationalized by a society 
which had become homogeneous 
through pre-eminence of the do- 
mestic-political group. It had passed 
through and lost its theocratic 
(legal) character. 

1953 Norma e institucion juridicas 
mayas. Inst. Inv. Cien., Pub. 9. 

Attempts to reconstruct prehistoric 
Maya legal systems and political in- 
stitutions, relying heavily on Tor- 
quemada and others. 

Dibble, Charles E. 

1948 The page order of the Codex 
Xolotl. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 

Ingenious and apparently final solu- 
tion of an old problem. 

1951a (ed.) Codice Xolotl. Inst. Hist., 
1st ser., no. 22. 

Scholarly and well-illustrated edi- 
tion of an important codex by an 
eminent authority in this area. 

1951b Robert Hayward Barlow, 1918- 
1951. Am. Antiq., 16:347. 

Other obituaries appeared as fol- 
lows: Bernal, Ignacio. R. H. Barlow. 
Tlalocan, 3:102 — McQuown, Norman 
A. Robert Hamilton [sic] Barlow, 
1918-1951. Am. Anthr., 53:543— Smi- 
sor, George. R. H. Barlow and "Tla- 
locan." Tlalocan, 3:97-102. 

1954-55 Los chichimecas de Xolotl. 
Mex. Estud. Antr., 14:285-88. 
References in the native sources. 





1948a La coiffure de plumes mexicaine 
du Musee de Vienne: Critique 
iconographique et notes ethnopsy- 
chologiques. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., 
pp. 381-92. 

Comparative study of Mexican gods' 
headdresses, concluding that Vienna 
Museum specimen was for the god 
Tezcatlipoca rather than Quetzal- 

1948b Zur den Jahresdaten des Mittel- 
amerikanischen Kalenders. B. sch- 
wiezerischen gesellschaft anthr. 
ethn., p. 11. 

Statement of the problem of cor- 
relating Mexican with Mayan calen- 

1950 Zur Deutung eines zapotekischen 
Goldschmucks. B. Soc. Suisse Am., 
no. 1, pp. 2-4. 

Interpretation of the design on a 
specimen from Monte Alban. 

DiGBY, Adrian 

1951 A jade earplug and a carved shell 
pectoral from Pomona, British 
Honduras. Bnt. Mus. Q., 16:29-30. 

The earplug has carved hierogly- 

1954 The maize god and the crossed 
band glyph. Pro. 30th. Intl. Cong. 
Am., pp. 41-44. 

Equates crossed band glyph with 
skull pendant and associates both 
with the maize god. 

DiMicK, John M. 

1948 Zaculeu, a highland Maya restora- 
tion and study. Palacio, 55:201-09. 
Preliminary account of the discov- 
eries and work of restoration by the 
United Fruit Company. 


1952 Dios del sacrificio. Tlatoani, 1:2-6. 

Full description, history, and inter- 
pretation of a large full-length sta- 
tue from Chilituju, Huaxteca. Ten- 
tatively identified as a version of 
Xipe Totec. 

Di Peso, Charles C. 

1957 A tubular stone pipe from Sonora. 
Am. Antiq., 22:288-90. 

Experiments suggest that these arti- 
facts could have been pipes, cloud 
blowers, or trumpets. 

Disselhoff, Hans-Dietrich 

1950 Altamerikanische Kulturen. Sae- 
culum, 1:137-62. 

Reviews the status of prehistoric 
studies and new discoveries, con- 

cluding with biographical informa- 
tion on recently deceased America- 
nists: Walter Lehmann, Robert 
Lehmann-Nitsche, Konrad Theodor 
Preuss, Karl Sapper, Paul ScheUhas, 
Emil Heinrich Snethlage, and Max 

1951 Das alte und das neue Reich der 
Maya. Saeculum,, 2:529-56. 

Author believes that Maya symbolic 
writing, higher arithmetic, astro- 
nomical knowledge and, later, 
metallui'gy surpassing that of the 
Chibcha and Peruvians show that 
Middle American high civilization 
was autochthonous. The more im- 
portant problems, he says, are those 
of local origins and of the motives 
for abandoning lowland Classic 

1952 Eine mexikanische Griinstein- 
Maske aus der "Kunstkammer" 
der bayrischen Herzoge. Ethnos, 

Curious case of a greenstone mask 
with onyx eyes, of Guerrero style, 
which found its way to Europe 
probably soon after the conquest 
and became part of a painted-tile 
figure installed in a bronze niche. 

1953 Geschichte der altamerikanischen 
Kulturen. Miinchen, R. Olden- 

Includes a general account of Meso- 
american and Central American 

Dorsinfang-Smets, a. 

1955 Les metates de Costa Rica des 

Musees Royaux d'art et d'histoire 

(Bruxelles) . J. Soc. Am., 44: 131-47. 

Elaborately carved effigy milling 

stones or seats suggest connections 

with the Greater Antilles. 

Dressler, Robert L. 

1953 The pre-Columbian cultivated 
plants of Mexico. Bot. Mus. Leaf- 
lets, 16: 115-72. 

Material drawn from the literatures 
of botany, ethnology, and archae- 
ology. The species are listed alpha- 
betically, with concise comments 
and bibliographic references. 

Drucker, Philip 

1948 Preliminary notes on an archaeo- 
logical survey of the Chiapas coast. 
Middle Am. Research Rec, 1:151- 

Surface and test-pit collections from 
an important but little-known 
archaeological area, including Islona 
de Chantuto, one of the very few 



places in Middle America where 
excavations have revealed a non- 
pottery occupation underlying cera- 
mic deposits. 14 figures. 

1952a La Venta, Tabasco. A study of 
Olmec ceramics and art. With a 
chapter on structural investiga- 
tions in 1943 by Waldo R. Wedel 
and appendix on technological an- 
alyses by Anna O. Shepard. Bu- 
reau Am. Ethn., B. 153. 

Important analysis of La Venta pot- 
tery and Olmec art. While it in- 
cludes controversial conclusions 
(equating La Venta and Middle Tres 
Zapotes with Early Classic rather 
than late Formative), it points out 
that Olmec art, over a long history, 
affected and was affected by Meso- 
american culture elsewhere but was 
isolated from Teotihuacan traits. The 
style reached its zenith in the La 
Venta period. 

1952b Middle Tres Zapotes and the pre- 
Classic ceramic sequence. Am. 
Antiq., 17:258-60. 

Clarification of the Middle Tres Za- 
potes ceramic content and its posi- 
tion and meaning in the pre-Classic 
pottery sequence. States that it was 
a gradually changing continuum 
equivalent to La Venta, and never 
influenced by the proto-Classic 
developments elsewhere. 

1952c Two aboriginal w^orks of art from 
the Veracruz coast. Smithsonian 
Misc. Col., vol. 117, no. 12. 

Carved turtle shell and clay statue 
of Xiuhtecutli from Cerro de las 
Mesas. Illustrated. 

1954 The Cerro de las Mesas offering 
of jade and other materials. Bu- 
reau Am. Ethn., B. 157, Anthr. 
Papers 44, pp. 25-68. 

Figurines, plaques, earspools, celts, 
beads, and other objects, and their 
possible Middle American relation- 
ships in time and space. 28 pages 
of photographs. 


1954 Sitios arqueologicos en la parte 
oriental del territorio olmeca. 
Tlatoani, 8-9:36-41. 

Archaeological reconnaissance of 
Tabasco and Veracruz, resulting in 
tentative boundaries for the Olmec 
culture at various stages of its de- 

— , Robert F. Heizer, and Robert H. 

1957 Fechas de radiocarbono de La 
Venta, Tabasco. B. Cent. Inv. Antr. 
Mex., 4:31-33. 

Radiocarbon dates from various 
levels at La Venta shed further light 
on that site's absolute chronology 
and its Olmec period. The authors 
believe that 814 B.C. ± 134 years 
is the approximate average for La 
Venta I. 

DuBY, Gertrude 

See Blom, Frans, and 



1957 Un brasero de 7 siglos. Historia 
de la ultima piedra arqueologica 
que ha entrado a formar parte del 
tesoro del Museo. Mariana, 68:38- 

Du Solier Massieu, Wilfrido 

1947-48 Ceramica arqueologica de San 
Cristobal Ecatepec. A. Inst. Nac. 
Anthr. Hist., 3:21-57. 

Stratigraphic tests revealing a long 
occupation, from Formative through 
Aztec and Colonial periods, on the 
slopes of Cerro de la Cruz. 22 plates. 

1950a Indumentaria antigua mexicana. 
Prologo de Manuel Toussaint. 
Mexico, Ediciones Mexicanas. 

Thirty-two excellent illustrations, in 
color, of prehistoric Middle Ameri- 
can costumes, based on information 
in chronicles, codices, and mural and 
ceramic paintings. Full explanatory 
notes with detailed drawings. Issued 
(1950) in English by the same pub- 
lisher under the title Ancient Mexi- 
cari costumes. 

1950b La plastica en las cabecitas arcai- 
cas del Valle de Mexico y la Huax- 
teca. Mexico, Ediciones Mexicanas. 
(Enciclopedia Mexicana de Arte, 
no. 2.) 

Detailed typological study leading 
to the conclusion that the Huaxteca 
Archaic developed independently of 
that in the Valley of Mexico. 

Button, Bertha P. 

1955 Tula of the Toltecs. 

Palacio, 62: 


Detailed account of the architecture 
and artifacts of Tula and their rela- 
tionships elsewhere, with a brief 
introductory account of the Toltecs 
and a history of investigations. 
Generously illustrated. 

A brief discussion of Chichen Itza. 
Palacio, 63:202-32. 

Useful short but thorough review 
of the architectural remains, illus- 
trated with photographs and a map. 




Easby, Dudley T., Jr. 

1956 Ancient American goldsmiths. 
Nat. Hist., 65:401-09. 

Magnificently illustrated account of 
prehistoric goldwork in Mexico and 
Central and South America. 

1957 Sahagun y los orfebres precolom- 
binos de Mexico. A. Inst. Nac. 
Antr. Hist., 9:85-117. 

Examines Sahagun's description of 
Indian metallurgy in the light of 
archaeological evidence and decides 
that Sahagun was an accurate and 
skillful observer of a highly com- 
plex and, by the layman, still not 
well understood technique. 

See Easby, Elizabeth Kennedy, and , 


Easby, Elizabeth Kennedy, and Dudley T. 
Easby, Jr. 

1953 Apuntes sobre la tecnica de tallar 
jade en Mesoamerica. A. Inst. Arte 
Am., 6, 11-37. 

Brief description of jades from Ka- 
minaljuyu and other Maya sites, 
from Oaxaca, the Valley of Mexico, 
and La Venta. 

EcHANOVE Trujillo, Carlos A. 

1956 EI sentido mistico de las artes 
plasticas mayas. R. Intl. Soc, 14: 

In merely agreeing with Dias- 
Bolio that much Mayan art is sym- 
bolic, this author pretentiously 
boasts that sociology again rescues 
archaeology from stupidity and 
error. Actually the author reveals 
his own ignorance of the extensive 
literature on this subject. 

Ekholm, Gordon F. 

1945 Middle America: Archaeology. 
HLAS, no. 11, pp. 14-20. 

A selective guide to the material 
published in 1945. 

1946 Middle America: Archaeology. 
HLAS, no. 12, pp. 13-19. 

Selective guide to the material pub- 
lished in 1946. 

1948 Ceramic stratigraphy at Acapulco, 
Guerrero. In El Occidente de Mex- 
ico, pp. 95-104. 

Ceramic sequence of a stratified site 
of the coastal area. The earliest re- 
mains are pre-Classic, followed by 
Teotihuacan and later types. 

1949 Palmate stones and thin stone 
heads: suggestions on their pos- 
sible use. Am. Antiq., 15:1-9. 

Suggests that thin stone heads were 
fastened to a belt and worn as cere- 
monial equipment and that palmate 
stones or possibly similar wooden 
objects were rested on the belt and 
carried ceremonially there in front 
of the body. 

1953a Exploracion arqueologica en So- 
nora y la parte norte de Sinaloa. 
Van, 1 : 34-36. 

General account of archaeological 
discoveries in this little-known zone. 

1953b A possible focus of Asiatic influ- 
ence in the Late Classic culture 
of Mesoamerica. Am. Antiq., 18: 

Examines a specific series of analo- 
gous traits in the cultures of south- 
east Asia and America, concluding 
that this "Complex A" was intru- 
sive in Mesoamerica in late Classic 
times, and was absorbed and modi- 
fied by existing vigorous cultures 

See Heine-Geldern, Robert, and 
1951, 1952; Kidder, A. V., and 

Encisco, Jorge 

1953 Design motifs of ancient Mexico. 
New York, Dover Publications. 

Catalog of designs, particularly from 
stamps, categorized and with prov- 
enience, but lacking any interpre- 

Escalona Ramos, Alberto 

1952 Una interpretacion de la cultura 
maya mexica. Madrid, Inst. Gon- 
zalo Fernandez de Oviedo, Con- 
sejo Superior de Inv. Cien. 

Great miscellany of odd information 
is brought under one cover. The 
interpretation is superficial. 

1954 Otra interpretacion cronologica. 
Tlatoani, 8-9:74-75. 

Further data bearing on the syn- 
chronizing of Mexican, Mayan, and 
European calendars, and on the 
question of whether years were 
named for the first or last day. 



1957 Una interpretacion de la cultura 
maya mexica. Misc. Am., 3:153- 

Ambitious attempt to analyze May- 
an-Mexican prehistoric culture his- 
tory in the Oswald Spengler or Ar- 
nold Toynbee manner, with detailed 
comparison of Mesoamerican cultur- 
al expressions, values, and points of 
view with what the author con- 
siders parallel developments in the 
Old World. 

EscRiTURA JeroglIfica Mexica 

1948 Escritura JeroglIfica Mexica. Me- 
xico, Vargas Rea. Biblioteca Apor- 
tacion Historica. 

Dictionary of glyphs and symbols 
most frequently used in designating 
place names in the Mexican codices. 

EsPEJO, Antonieta 

1948 Resumen de los trabajos arque- 
ologicos. In Tlatelolco. . . ., X. 
Provides considerable architectural 
detail and brief lists of pottery 

1950 Resumen de los trabajos arque- 
ologicos. In Tlatelolco . . . ., XL 
Includes a map of the site and four 

1956 Nomenclatura de tipos de alfare- 
rias Lago de Texcoco. Mem. Acad. 
Mex. Hist., 15: 117-24. 

Attempt to standardize archaeologi- 
cal description of pottery from this 

See Griffin, James B., and , 1950. 

EspiNOZA, Gustavo 

1952 Investigaciones arqueologicas en 
San Agustin Acasaguastlan. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 4:19-46. 

Assembles archaeological data on 
the San Agustin region, with Span- 
ish translation from Kidder and 
Smith's 1935 and 1943 publications, 
plus accounts of more recent in- 

Estrada Balmori, Elma 

1947-48 Funeraria en Chupicuaro, Gu- 
anajuato. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 

Excavation of a large cemetery in 
the Rio Lerma region of Guanajuato. 

, AND Roman Pina Chan 

1948 Complejo funerario en Chupicu- 
aro. In El Occidente de Mexico, 
pp. 40-41. 

Burial ciistoms at Chupicuaro, Gua- 
najuato. Among the funeral furni- 
ture are clay figures believed to 
represent the deceased. 


1956 Estudios antropologicos publicados 
en homenaje al doctor Manuel 
Gamio. U. Nac. Autonoma de 
Mexico, Soc. Mex. Antr. 

Estudios historicos Americanos 

1953 Estudios historicos americanos. 
Homenaje a Silvio Zavala. Salu- 
tacion de Alfonso Reyes. Mexico, 
Colegio de Mexico. 

Evans, Clifford, Jr., and Betty J. Meggers 

1952 American table d'hote. Mexican 
Life, 29:26-27. 

Popular article on the native 
American origin and background of 
food and tobacco plants still popular 

Excavations in the Mixteca Alta 

1953 Excavations in the Mixteca Alta. 
Mesoamer. Notes, 3. 

Report prepared by faculty and stu- 
dents of Mexico City College, De- 
partment of Anthropology. Correla- 
tions with the Monte Alban se- 
quence are suggested. 

Faucett, Lawrence 

1956 Time and morality: establishing a 
Babylonian source for Hindu and 
Mayan chronologies. Woodland 
Hills, Calif. 

A somewhat mystical interpretation 
of a great variety of not well-inte- 
grated data, based on the assump- 
tions that a "sense of the importance 
of Time is a measure of Man's mor- 
ality," and that the Babylonian 
calendar was carried to Middle 

Fay, George E. 

1953 The archaeological cultures of the 
southern half of Sonora, Mexico. 
Am. Phil. Soc, Year Book, pp. 

Preliminary report on an archaeo- 
logical survey in the region west 
and south of Hermosillo, southward 
to Los Mochis in northern Sinaloa. 

1955a A preliminary archaeological sur- 
vey of the w^estern coast of Mex- 



ico. Am. Phil. Soc, Year Book, pp. 

Survey of sites and surface collec- 
tions from Guerrero, Colima, 
Nayarit, Michoacan, Jalisco, and 

1955b Prepottery lithic complex from 
Sonora, Mexico. Science, 121:3152, 
pp. 777-78. 

Suggests that this is a Sonoran 
variant of the Cochise culture. 

1956a Another cruciform artifact from 
Sonora. Am. Antiq., 21:410-11. 

Polished obsidian cross of a type 
found in northwest Mexico and 
southeast Arizona. 

1956b Peralta complex, a Sonoran vari- 
ant of the Cochise culture. Sci- 
ence, 124:3230, p. 1029. 

An early lithic artifact assemblage. 

Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. 

1951 The granite ruin of Tonala. Arch- 
aeology, 4:83-88. 

Well-illustrated popular account of 
a trip to this ruin east and south 
of Tehuantepec. 

1953 Tonala, Mexico. An archaeological 
survey. School Am. Research, 
Monogr. 16. 

Tonala became a ceremonial site in 
the Formative period, probably con- 
temporaneously with the Danzantes 
at Monte Alban. Mexican influence 
from Veracruz was felt during Late 
Classic and the site was abandoned 
soon thereafter. Many photographs, 
maps, plans, and elevations. 

1955 A trial survey of Mexican-South- 
western architectural parallels. 
School Am,. Research, Monogr. 21. 
Suggestions regarding Mexican- 
Southwest relationships, including 
the proposal that Quetzalcoatl 
worship entered the Southwest with 
round structures there. The period 
of contact is estimated at A.D. 1050- 
1300, and it is suggested that trad- 
ing pochteca groups invaded the 
Hohokam, or possibly groups from 
Tula seeking a new home after 1168. 

Ferguson, Thomas Stuart 
See Hunter, Milton R., and 


Fernandez, Justing 

1954 Coatlicue: estetica del arte indi- 
gena antiguo. Prologo de Samuel 
Ramos. Mexico, Centro de Estu- 

dios Filosoficos (Ediciones del IV 
centenario de la Universidad Na- 
cional, no. 15). 

Reviews past critics of native 
American art, and offers his own 
appraisal of Coatlicue sculpture. 

Fernandez, Miguel Angel 

1954 Drawings of glyphs of structure 
XVIII, Palenque. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 119. 

The late artist's record of Palenque 
inscriptions, with notes by Heinrich 

Fischer, Hans 

1956 Eine "Guidonische Hand" in einer 
Maya-Handschrift. Zeit. Ethn., 81: 

Picture of hand with fingers denot- 
ing notes of the hexachord, a 
medieval aid to music students, 
evidently copied from some Euro- 
pean book into the Chilam Balam of 
Kaua in the belief that it treated 
of palm-reading or some other oc- 

FooTE, Helen S. 

1951 Four pre-Columbian ornaments. 
B. Cleveland Mus. Art, no. 3, pp. 

Jade pendant and mask, gold bell, 
and a most unusual eccentric flint 
acquired by the museum. 

For the Dean 

1950 For the Dean: essays in anthro- 
pology in honor of Byron Cum- 
mings. Tucson and Santa Fe. 

Forster, James R. 

1955 Notas sobre la arqueologia de 
Tehuantepec. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 7:77-100. 

Posthumously published ceramic 

FosHAG, William F. 

1954 Estudios mineralogicos sobre el 
jade de Guatemala. Traduccion de 
Argentina Diaz Lozano. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 6:3-47. 

History of the use of jade, its no- 
menclature, technological analyses, 
and description of jade at various 
archaeological sites. 



, AND Robert Leslie 

1955 Jadeite from Manzanal, Guate- 
mala. Am. Antiq., 21:81-83. 

Analysis of jade from the vicinity 
of one of the few known jade out- 
crops in Middle America. A useful 
background statement on New 
World jades is included. 

Foster, George M. 

1948 Some implications of modern 
Mexican mold-made pottery. Sw. 
J. Anthr., 4:356-70. 

Although based on modern pottery 
making, this study involves a dis- 
cussion of prehistoric practices of 
interest to the archaeologist. 6 

Found: America's Greatest Sculpture 

1948 Found: America's greatest sculp- 
ture. Art News, 46:32-33. 

Large photographic reproductions 
of two recently discovered Olmec 
and Huaxtec stone sculptures that 
have received much attention from 
students of fine arts. 

Franco C, Jose Luis 

1949 Algunos problemas relativos a la 
ceramica azteca. Mex. Antig., 7: 

Classification of Aztec pottery, its 
chronological distribution, and criti- 
cal examination of other classifica- 

1954a Un notable ejemplar de arte in- 
dividual en ceramica azteca. Con 
una breve discusion sobre el Xo- 
chimecatl y Quetzalcoatl. Yan, 3: 

In an art so subject to conventions, 
this vessel is a notably typical speci- 
men from Tula, Hidalgo. 

1954b Snares and traps in Codex Ma- 
drid. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 

Snares, deadfall traps, pitfalls, and 

1955a Sobre un molde para vasijas con 
decoracion en relieve. Mex. Antig., 

Stylized animal-head mold from 
Acatlan, Puebla. 

1955b Trampas en el codice Madrid y 
discusion de glifos relacionados. 
Mex. Antig., 8:193-218. 

First part of this article previously 
published in English in 1954. The 
second part assembles glyphs asso- 
ciated with depictions of snares. 

1956a Un caracol grabado de la Huas- 
teca. B. Cent. Inv. Antr. Mex., 1: 

Trumpet probably from the Mix- 
quititlan, Hidalgo, area, carved to 
represent sexual union. 

1956b Malcates del complejo Tula-Ma- 
zapan. In Estud. Antr., pp. 201-12. 
Classification of spindle whorls from 
the Tula archaeological zone, Hidal- 

1956c Representaciones del espejo hu- 
meante en ceramica azteca tipo M. 
B. Cent. Inv. Antr. Mex., 1:5-10. 

Tezcatlipoca symbolism and repre- 

1957 Un fragmento de hueso grabado 
de la mixteca. B. Cent. Inv. Antr. 
Mex., 4:29. 

Depicts Xochipilli Macuilxochitl 
with a bird headdress possibly repre- 
senting Quetzalcoxcox. 

— — , AND Frederick A. Peterson 

1957 Motives decorativos en la ceramica 
azteca. Mexico, Mus. Nac. Antr. 
(Serie cientifica, no. 5). 
Copiously illustrated description, 
classification, and placement of 
decorative motifs, with a section on 
the serpent motif by Peterson. 

Franco Torrijos, Enrique 

1950 Odisea en Bonampak. Narracion 
inedita de una azarosa expedicion. 
Mexico, Artes Graficas. 
Expedition adventures. 

Freund, Gisele 

1954 Mexique precolombien. Texte de 
Paul Rivet; photographic de Gi- 
sele Freund. Neuchatel, Switzer- 
land, Editions Ides et Calendes 
(Coll. des Ides photographiques, 
no. 8) . 

Superb photographs of Mexican an- 
tiquities. Rivet's introduction is brief 
and outdated, clinging to the old 
tripartite Archaic-Toltec-Aztec out- 
line of Mexican prehistory, with 
Teotihuacan assigned to the Toltecs. 
French, English, and German texts. 

Fulton, Charles C. 

1948 Did the Maya have a zero? The 
meanings of our zero and the 
Maya "zero" symbols. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 90. 

Questions the validity of inter- 
preting the Maya "zero" in terms of 
modern mathematical concepts. Be- 
lieves the Maya "zero" represented 
cyclical completion. 



Galicia, Remberto I. 

1950 Petrograbados en una gruta a or- 
illas del Torola. A. Mus. Nac, 1: 

Note on petroglyphs in the Depart- 
ment of Morazan, El Salvador. 

Gallo, Joaquin 

1955 Las constelaciones indigenas. Un 
ensayo: identificacion de las con- 
stelaciones de Sahagiin. Astron- 
omia Popular (Mexico), 1:17-21. 

Garcia Payon, Jose 

1948-49 Una "palma" in situ. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 10:121-24. 

Description of a relief sculpture of 
Aparicio in Veracruz and its simi- 
larities to Tajin carvings, including 
the wearing of a "palmette" stone. 

1949a Arqueologia de Zempoala. Uni- 
Ver, 1:11-19, 134-39, 449-76, 534-48, 

Five articles comprising a useful 
summary of the main archaeological 
features of this important ruin: (1) 
pottery censers and stone sculpture 
cached under an altar; (2) unusual 
dancing and acrobatic multi-figure 
poses of clay figurines; (3) Totonac- 
Teotihuacan and other relationships; 
(4) the Templo de las Caritas; (5) the 
famous circular structure and the 
rectangular pyramid in front of it, 
the former dedicated to Ehecatl- 
Quetzalcoatl, the latter to Xolotl, 
his twin brother. 

1949b Una nueva fecha may a en el terr- 
itorio veracruzano. Uni-Ver, 1: 

Cylindrical clay seal which prints, 
according to his interpretation, an 
Initial Series date of the 10th cycle. 

1949c Un palacio totonaca: arqueologia 
del Tajin, 2. Uni-Ver, 1:581-95. 
Detailed description of the famous 
pyramid of Tajin. 

1949d La zona arqueologica de Oceloa- 
pan. Uni-Ver. 1:492-504. 

Another useful summary of the 
archaeological features of various 
sites and zones in Veracruz by Gar- 
cia Payon. Stratigraphic tests reveal 
Cerro Montoso type of pottery on 
top (associated with the surface 
architecture), which the author 
equates with Zempoala III and IV 
and Panuco VI, with much closer 
relations with the Huasteca than 
with the Valley of Mexico. Under- 
neath are remains corresponding to 
Teotihuacan II and III, and at base, 
"Archaic" figurines of Type D. 

1950a Castillo de Teayo. Noticias sobre 
su arqueologia. Uni-Ver, 2:155-64. 

Tula type of sculpture (stalking 
jaguars) and certain clay figurines 
persuade the author that this re- 
gion, of Huaxtec speech when con- 
quered by the Texocanas and Aztecs, 
was formerly a Toltec colony. 

1950b De la calidad y deberes de los 
embaj adores entre los aztecas. 
Uni-Ver, 2:357-68. 

Assembles data on the functions of 
Aztec ambassadors, from codices and 
other early accounts. 

1950c Elementos fisicos que contribuye- 

ron a la gran inundacion de la ciu- 

dad de Mexico, en los afios 1499 6 

1500. Uni-Ver, 2:309-19. 

Attributes the disastrous flooding of 

Tenochtitlan to Aztec defense works, 

which did not permit the flood 

waters to escape into the lake. 

1950d "Palmas" y "hachas" votivas. Uni- 
Ver, 2:63-66. 

Further evidence on the nature of 
palmate stones and thin stone heads. 

1950e Restos de una cultura prehistorica 
encontrados en la region de Zem- 
poala, Ver. Uni-Ver, 2:90-130. 

Archaeological report on excava- 
tions at El Trapiche, Veracruz; the 
earliest remains correspond in time 
with Early Zacatenco, but the 
author sees the latter (and earliest 
Teotihuacan) as marginal expres- 
sions, possibly of an earlier and 
richer Formative culture on the 
Gulf. 26 figs. 

19501 Las tumbas con mausoleos de la 
region central de Veracruz. Uni- 
Ver, 2:7-23. 
This article, with superior reproduc- 
tions of the photographs, appeared 
in English in 1945 in Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 59. 

1951a Breves apuntes sobre la arque- 
ologia de Chachalacas. Jalapa, 
Mexico, U. Veracruzana. 

Excavations in Veracruz of remains 
that the author correlates chrono- 
logically with Teotihuacan III and to 
his previously described Early Zem- 
poala and Early Coyotlatelco- 

1951b La ceramica de fondo "sellado" 
de Zempoala, Veracruz. In Ho- 
menaje Caso, pp. 181-98. 

Includes discussion of the geogra- 
phical distribution and chronological 
position of stamps and stamped ves- 



sels, which the author believes are 
indigenous to Middle America and 
were probably invented there in 
pre-Classic times. 

1951c La ciudad arqueologica del Taj in. 
Jalapa, Mexico, Contribucion de 
la U. Veracruzana a la V Reunion 
de Mesa Redonda de Antr. 

Description of the structures and 
monuments, with a large folding 
map of the site. 

1951d El Tajin, trabajos de conservacion 
realizados en 1951. A. Inst. Nac. 
Antr. Hist., 5:75-80. 

Includes 24 photographic illustra- 
tions of the Pyramid of the Niches 
and other structures. 

1952a Totonacas y Olmecas. Un ensayo 
de correlacion historico-arqueolo- 
gica. U. Veracruzana, 1:27-52. 

Lengthy review of archaeological, 
historical, and ethnic relationships 
of the Totonac region of Veracruz. 
BeUeves that the Totonac civiliza- 
tion was derived from the so-caUed 
"Olmec" of southern Veracruz in 
Formative times, came under Toltec 
influence in the Late Classic and 
post-Classic, with Totonac traits sur- 
viving into the Nahuatl-dominated 
Late period. 

1952b La Universidad Veracruzana en el 
campo de la arqueologia. U. Vera- 
cruzana, 1:22-26. 

Reviews archaeological activities 
and broad archaeological problems 
in this area. Illustrated. 

1955a Exploraciones en el Tajin, tem- 
poradas 1953 y 1954. Mexico, Di- 
reccion de Monumentos Prehis- 
panicos, Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist. 

Brief report, more than half of it 
illustrations, of investigations at this 
architecturally unusual ruin. 

1955b La ofrenda del altar de la gran 
piramide, Zempoala, Ver. Mex. 
Antig., 8:57-65. 

Late protohistoric pottery represent- 
ing Quetzalcoatl, Xochipilli, etc. 

Garcia Ruiz, Alfonso 

1953 El derecho premial entre los may- 
as y los chibchas. In Estud. Hist. 
Am., pp. 477-516. 

Examines native American political 
structure and processes and their 
ramifications, calling attention to 
the formal legal status of some In- 
dian judicial systems. 

Garibay K., Angel Mar! a 

1948 Fray Bernardino de Sahagiin: Re- 
lacion breve de las fiestas de los 
dioses. Tlalocan, 2:289-320. 

Valuable transcription and transla- 
tion of the facsimile edition of the 
festivals of the religious year in 
Tepepulco, together with black-and- 
white reproductions of the pictures, 
which Sahagiin had the natives rec- 
ord between 1558 and 1560. 

1953 Historia de la literatura nahuatl. 
Pt. 1. Mexico, Porriia. 

Resume of works, with many quo- 
tations, from what was perhaps the 
most important native American In- 
dian language so far as "literature" 
is concerned. 

Gibson, Charles 

1956 Llamamiento general, reparti- 
miento, and the empire of Acol- 
huacan. Hisp. Am. Hist. R., 36:1- 

Thorough search of early documents 
reveals interesting differences be- 
tween the scope of the ancient Tex- 
cocan dominion of the Aztec Triple 
Alliance and the Spanish colonial 
repartimiento area, with inferences 
regarding peonage and other socio- 
cultural developments. 


1957 De asteken. Amsterdam, Uitge- 
versmaatschappi j . 

Profusely illustrated and with an 
excellent text, this is not just an- 
other adaptation of Vaillant's much 
copied book. There should be an 
English edition. 


1950 Surface archaeology of Ixtlan del 
Rio, Nayarit. U. Calif. Pub. Am. 
Archaeol. Etkn., 43:183-302. 

Report on a surface reconnaissance; 
sets up three chronological periods 
corresponding in general to the pre- 
viously known Early Chametla 
through Late Culiacan sequences. 
50 figures. 

Gillmor, Frances 

1954-55 Estructuras en la zona de Tex- 
coco durante el reino de Nezahual- 
coyotl segiin las fuentes historicas. 
R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 14:363-71. 
Early references to temples, palaces, 
and other structures in this zone, 
with special reference to large pub- 
lic works, the Chapultepec aque- 
duct, and the Tepetzinco defense 



Gilpin, Laura 

1948 Temples in Yucatan. A camera 
chronicle of Chichen Itza. New 
York, Hastings House. 

Superb photographs of the ruins, 
with a short commentary. 

Girard, Rafael 

1948a Esoterismo del Popol-Vuh. Me- 
xico, Stylo (Col. Cultura Preco- 

Analysis of the cosmology, tribal 
history, symbolism, and other esote- 
ric aspects of the famous Quiche 
document. Appendix on the Dance 
of the Giants as performed by the 
modern Chorti. 

1948b Genesis y funcion de la greca 
escalonada. Cuad. Am., 60:139-51. 

Comparative study of the stepped 
fret, which the author links closely 
to mythology connected with the 
worship of the maize deity. 7 photo- 

1948c El calendario maya-mexica. Me- 
xico, Stylo (Col. Cultura Preco- 
lombina) . 

Analysis of Chorti calendrical and 
astronomical knowledge and other 
factors bearing on the origin, de- 
velopment, and functions of the 
calendar in Middle America. 

1952 El Popol-Vuh, fuente historica. 
Vol. 1. El Popol-Vuh como funda- 
mento de la historia maya-quiche. 
Guatemala, Ministerio de Educa- 
cion Publica (El libro de Guate- 
mala, Col. Contemporaneos, no. 

Analysis and historical interpreta- 
tion of the Popol Vuh. Proposes 
three epochs: Primitive, Formative, 
and Advanced Horticultural. A 
stimulating but controversial book. 

Gomez de Orozco, Federico 

1948 La pintura indoeuropea de los 
Codices Techialoyan. A. Inst. Inv. 
Estet., no. 16, pp. 57-67. 

Interesting account of how the In- 
dians were taught to draw and paint 
in European style, with special ref- 
erence to the school of Fray Pedro 
de Gante and the Techialoyan group 
of Mexican codices. 11 plates. 

Gomez Robleda, Jose 

1952 Dictamen acerca de la autentici- 
dad del descubrimiento de la tum- 
ba de Cuauhtemoc en Ixcateopan. 
Mexico, Secretaria de Educacion 

Minority opinion by a member of 
the commission to investigate the 
authenticity of the Cuauhtemoc 
burial. Detailed investigation of 
legendary, historical, documentary, 
palaeographic, archaeological, metal- 
lurgical, and osteological evidence 
leads the author to the conclusion 
that the burial was indeed that of 
Cuauhtemoc himself. 


1957 Costa Rica: Un rlo desbordado 
descubre un tesoro arqueologico. 
(Mas de cien piezas de oro de las 
culturas precolombinas) . Mundo 
Hisp., 10:32-33. 

Gonzalez, DarIo 

1950 Ruinas de Tehuacan. A. Mus. Nac, 

Brief description of surface remains 
at Tehuacan. Says that pottery is of 
Mexican style. 

Gosner, Kenneth L. 

1952 Maya metropolis. Nat. Hist., 61: 
Popular article on the famous ruins 
of Tikal, with many illustrations. 

Goubaud Carrera, Antonio 

1949 Problemas etnologicos del Popol 
Vuh. I. Procedencia y lenguaje de 
los quiches. Antr. Hist. Guat., 1: 

Supports the view that the "Quiche" 
of Popol Vuh were Toltecs or other 
migrants from Tula, Hidalgo, who 
were absorbed, at least linguisti- 
cally, by natives of Guatemala. Esti- 
mates Utatlan was founded in the 
early 13th century. 

Grace, F. J. S. 

1954 "Pok-Ta-Pok," the lost rubber 
ball game. New York, privately 

Assembles various accounts of the 
rubber ball game. 

Graebner, F. 

1948 Origenes asiaticos del calendario 
mexica. B. Soc. Mex. Geog. Estad., 

Analogies in cultural traits connect- 
ed with the calendars of Asia and 
Mexico, particularly animal names 
for week or month names, hours of 
the day, and so on. An introduction 
by Escalona Ramos contains a live- 
ly attack on British insularity and 
North American isolationism in 
Americzm historical anthropology. 



Grebe, Willi Herbert, and Wolfgang 

1956 Vorgeschichtliche Menschenfahr- 
ten in der Kiistenebene El Salva- 
dor, C. A. Zeit. Ethn., 81:83-94. 

Estimates the age of these footprints 
as between A.D. and 800. 

See Haberland, Wolfgang, and , 1957. 

Greengo, Robert E. 

1952 The Olmec phase in eastern Mex- 
ico. B. Texas Archaeol. Paleon. 
Soc, 23:260-92. 

Examines the "Olmec traits" of Tres 
Zapotes, La Venta, and San Lorenzo 
Tenochtitlan, as comprising a well- 
integrated culture complex which 
the author calls the Olmec phase. 

Griffen, James B., and Antonieta Espejo 

1950 La alfareria correspondiente al 
ultimo periodo de ocupacion nahua 
del Valle de Mexico: II. In Tlate- 

lolco , XI. 

Description, discussion, and bibliog- 
raphy of four Lago de Texcoco pot- 
tery types. 

Groth-Kimball, Irmgard 

1953 Kunst im alten Mexiko. Mit Ein- 
leitung und Anmerkungen von 
Franz Feuchtwanger. Ziirich, At- 
lantis Verlag. 

See next entry. 

1954 The art of ancient Mexico. Text 
and notes by Franz Feuchtwanger. 
London and N. Y., Thames and 

The introduction is a brief art ap- 
praisal, not a true anthropological 
background, but the 105 illustrations 
are superb. Also published in Ger- 
man (see preceding entry). 

Guzman, David Joaquin 

1955a Arqueologia salvadorefia. Sintesis, 

1955b Rasgos geologicos de El Salvador. 
Sintesis, 2:135-40. 

1957 Excavations in Costa Rica and 
Panama. Archaeology, 10:258-63. 

Isolates three area styles of funerary 


Haberland, Wolfgang 

1954 The golden battle discs of Chichen 
Itza. Ethnos, 19:94-104. 

A re-analysis of the discs from Chi- 
chen Itza described by Lothrop. 
Sees less Toltec influence, and pre- 
fers a dating between and 

— , AND Willi Herbert Grebe 

1957 Prehistoric footprints from El Sal- 
vador. Am. Antiq., 22:282-85. 

See Grebe, Willi Herbert, and 


Guzman, Eulalia 

See Perez Martinez, Hector, and 

-, 1951. 

Harcourt, Raoul d' 

1951 Ocarinas du Nicaragua. J. Soc. 
Am., U.S., 40:242-44. 

Sees the origin of New World 
ocarinas in South America, not in 
Central America. 

Harrington, Richard 

1955 The glory that was Maya. Can. 
Geog. J., 51:230-35. 

Popular article with 11 photographs 
of ruins in Yucatan. 

Harrison, Margaret A. L. 

1948-55 Annual report on staff publica- 
tions. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year 
Books 47-54. 

Status of monographs and articles, 
both published and in preparation 
for press. 

1949 Bibliografia de Sylvanus Griswold 
Morley. Antr. Hist. Guat., 1:73-76. 

See also American Antiquity, 14: 

Hatt, Robert Torrens, Harvey I. Fisher, 
Dave A. Langebartel, and George W. 

1953 Faunal and archeological re- 
searches in Yucatan caves. Cran- 
brook Inst. Sci., B. 33. 
See Brainerd, 1953. 

Healey, Giles Greville 

1948 Oxlahuntun. Archaeology, 1:129- 

Photographs and general description 
of an important new Classic period 
ruin in Chiapas. 



1950 The Lacanja valley. Archaelogy, 

Excellent photographs of additional 
unpublished ruins in the Lacandon 
country of Chiapas. 

Heine-Geldern, Robert, and Gordon F. 

1951 Significant parallels in the sym- 
bohc arts of southern Asia and 
Middle America. In Tax, 1951, pp. 

Detailed discussion of resemblances 
between Old and New World sym- 
bolic arts, particularly from the 
Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and Mid- 
dle America, suggesting contacts be- 
tween the 1st and 12th centuries a.d. 

1952 Paralelos significativos en el arte 
simbolico del sur de Asia y Meso- 
america. Tlatoani, 1:29-35. 

Spanish version of their 1951. 

Heiser, Charles B., Jr. 

1951 The sunflower among the North 
American Indians. Pro. Am. Phil. 
Soc, 95:432-48. 

Includes sections on the Mexican 
strains of this plant, early references 
to it by Acosta, Hernandez, Xime- 
nez, etc., and the significance of its 
native names. 

Heizer, Robert F. 

1948 Human sacrifices among the Az- 
tecs. Ciba, 10:922-23. 

Illustrated account of types of hu- 
man sacrifice: cardiac, scaffold-and- 
arrow, decapitation, roasting, and 
crushing, described in early chroni- 

Helbig, Karl 

1956 Antiguales (Altertiimer) der Pa- 
ya-Region und die Paya-Indianer 
von Nordost-Honduras. Hamburg. 
(Beitrage zur mittelamerikanis- 
chen Volkerkunde, no. 3). 

The first part describes artifacts, 
petroglyphs, and other remains en- 
countered during geographical re- 

Henning, Paul 

1954 Comments on the religion of the 
Toltecs. B. U. Archaeol Soc. 5:16- 

Extracts from the chronicle of 

Hernandez Rodriguez, Rosaura 

1954-55 El Valle de Toluca. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 14:281-83. 

Brief statements of archaeological 
background and notices in the na- 
tive sources. 

Hewes, Gordon W. 

1950 Some Lake Cuitzeo sites, Michoa- 
can, Mexico. Masterkey, 24:179-82. 

Results of a reconnaissance on the 
shoreline of Lago de Cuitzeo, with 
indications that remains of early 
man may underlie Early Formative 

Hidalgo Nieto, Manuel 

1949 Bonampak. La expedicion del In- 
stituto Nacional de Bellas Artes 
mejicano. Estud. Am., 1:757-88. 

Account of the discovery of Bonam- 
pak (both versions) and the drama- 
tic expeditions, including that which 
resulted in the tragic drowning of 
two investigators. 

HiGBEE, Edward 

1948 Agriculture in the Maya home- 
land. Geog. R., 38:457-64. 

Author believes a modern "pioneer" 
in the southern Yucatan peninsula 
would find successful planting and 
survival more difficult than did the 
ancient Maya with their early tech- 
niques, since agriculture was non- 
commercial then and land utilization 
entirely different. 

Historia Chichimeca 

1950 Manuscrito copiado por F. Galicia 
Chimalpopoca y traducido al cas- 
tellano. Mexico, Vargas Rea (Col. 

Spanish and NahuatI in parallel 
columns, with glyphs reproduced in 

Homenaje Caso 

1951 Homenaje al doctor Alfonso Caso. 
Mexico, Nuevo Mundo. 

Volume in honor of the famous 
Mexican archaeologist and admini- 
strator. For archaeological papers, 
see individual authors. Also includes 
Liminar, by Antonio Pompa y Pom- 
pa; La obra del doctor Aljonao Caso, 
by Ignacio Marquina; Bibliograjia 
del doctor Alfonso Caso; Caso en 
Monte Albun, by Ignacio Bernal; 
Lineas de un perfil del doctor Al- 
fonso Caso, by Jose de Jesus Nufiez 
y Dominguez; and Recuerdos de ex- 
cursiones y viajes con Alfonso Caso, 
by Manuel Toussaint. 




1954 Mexique, magie maya. Introduc- 
tion de Jacques Soustelle. Notice 
historique par Miguel Covarru- 
bias. Lausanne, Guilde du Livre. 
Another collection of fine photo- 
graphs of prehistoric ruins and con- 
temporary native life in Mexico. 

HoRCASiTAs, Fernando 

See McAfee, Byron, Robert H. Barlow, 
and , 1952. 

Howard, Agnes McClain 

1954a Ancestor of pottery? Am. Antiq., 

Grass container, covered with clay 
in coiled style, from a cave in Du- 

1954b Cruciform artifacts of the Sierra 

Occidental. Am. Antiq., 20:174-75. 

An unusual type of artifact found in 

northern Mexico, especially Duran- 

go, and the southwest United States. 

-, 1955. 

See Lister, Robert H., and 

Hughes, Jack T. 

1956 Stone crosses with a Cuicuilco 
burial. Am. Antiq., 22:80-82. 

Cruciform artifacts associated with 
an intrusive burial, excavated in 

Hunter, Milton R., and Thomas Stuart 

1950 Ancient America and the Book of 
Mormon. Oakland, California, 
Kolob Book Co. 

Correlation of passages from The 
Book oj Mormon with extracts from 
the works of Ixtlilxochitl, the Popol 
Vuh, the Titulo de Totonicapdn, and 
others. Postulates three groups of 
colonizers migrating from the Fer- 
tile Crescent to Middle America, and 
identifies Quetzalcoatl as the resur- 
rected Messiah. 

Imbelloni, Jose 

1956 La segunda esfinge Indiana: an- 
tiguos y nuevos aspectos del 
problema de los origenes ameri- 
canos. Buenos Aires, Hachette. 
Enlarged and revised edition of a 
1926 book; an exhaustive and com- 
petent review of the various theories 

regarding the peopling of the Ameri- 
cas, with particular attention to the 
Heyerdahl hypotheses. 

Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e 


1956a El Instituto Nacional de Antropo- 
logia e Historia. Mexico. 

General account of the Institute's 
program, with some fine photogra- 
phic illustrations of artifacts and 

1956b Quia oficial del Museo Nacional 
de Antropologia e Historia. Me- 

Minimum of text and maximum of 
pictures, some of the latter in color. 
The material, after the pre-Classic, 
is divided by regions. 

Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes 

1952 Mexico en el arte. Edition speciale 
en frangais. Mexico. 

A special number of the journal of 
the same title. Among other articles, 
contains the following: Penetration 
et signification artistique de 'lart 
prehispanique du Mexique, by Paul 
Westheim; Les racines politiques de 
I'art de Tenochtitlan by Miguel Co- 
varrubias; Les animaux dans la 
sculpture mexicaine antique, by An- 
tonio Castro Leal; Un masque 
azteque feminin, by Alfonso Caso; 
Universalite, singularite et pluralite 
de I'art maya, by Alberto Ruz 
Lhuillier; Les may as hier et au- 
jourd'hui: Bonampak, by Carlos R. 
Margain; La musique dans les cul- 
tures indiennes, by Carlos Chavez; 
L'architecture du Mexique, by 
Mauricio Gomez Mayorga. 

These chapters comprise one of 
the best single volumes on Mexican 
fine arts, ancient and modern. How- 
ever, the interpretation is less an- 
thropological than artistic, with 
some outstanding exceptions. 

Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e 
Historia. Comision de Historia 

1950- Monumentos historicos y arqueo- 
logicos de America. Vols. 1-. Me- 

This series prints the legislation of 
the various countries designed to 
protect their antiquities, gives sam- 
ple bibliographies, and photographic 
illustrations of famous sites and 
artifacts. The countries represented 
are: 1, Panama (by Angel Rubio, 
1950); 2, United States (by Ronald 



F. Lee, 1951); 3, Brazil (by Rodrigo 
Melo Franco de Andrade, 1952); 4, 
Chile (by Roberto Montandon, 1952); 
5, Haiti (by Catts Pressoir, 1952); 6, 
Guatemala (by Daniel F. Rubin de 
la Borbolla and Hugo Cerezo, 1953) 
7, Mexico (by Rubin de la Borbolla, 
1953); 8, Honduras (by Rubin de la 
Borbolla and Pedro Rivas); and 9, 
Ecuador (by Fr. Jose Maria Vargas, 
1953). There is considerable vari- 
ation in the thoroughness with 
which the various countries are 
treated; thus Guatemala and Hon- 
duras are only small booklets, while 
Mexico is a 487-page volume with 
475 magnificent illustrations. 

Irigoyen, Renan 

1949 Los mayas y el henequen. R. Estud. 
Yucatecos, no. 3, pp. 11-26. 

Catalog of possible uses of sisal by 
the ancient Maya, with illustrations 
from codices, murals, etc. 

1950 Los mayas y el henequen. Merida, 
Mexico, Pub. de los Henequeneros 
de Yucatan. 

Reprinted from his 1949. 

Irving, William N. 
See Shook, Edwin M., and 

Iturribarria, Jorge Fernando 

1952 Las viejas culturas de Oaxaca. 
Mexico, Valle. 

An introduction useful for the be- 
ginning student, but not sufficiently 
detailed for the advanced student. 

1956 El papel de Oaxaca en la cultura 
precortesiana. Hist.Mex., 5:411-28. 

Believes the Mixtecs excelled in 
ceramics, goldwork, drawing and 
painting of codices. 

Jacobs-Muller, E. F. 

1948a Ceramica de la cuenca del rio 
Lerma. In El Occidente de Mexico, 
pp. 50-54. 

Six ceramic wares and their rela- 
tionships, and definition of the 
archaeological zones of the upper 
Rio Lerma. 

1948b Chimalacatlan. Acta Anthr., vol. 3. 
no. 1. 

Report on excavations in Morales, 
Mexico. Recognizes three prehistoric 
periods, Mazatepec I, II, and Quila- 

mula, which equate with Formative 
and Classic ceramic horizons. 10 
plates, 15 figures. 

1949 Historia antigua del valle de Mo- 
relos. Acta Anthr. (July). 

Prehistory of Morelos based on 
native and early Spanish sources. 
Recognizes three horizons: the Tol- 
teca-Chichimeca, the Chichimeca, 
and the Triple Alliance. 

1951 Las ceramicas del horizonte-cul- 
turas locales. In Tax, 1951, pp. 43- 

Red-on-cream or red-on-orange 
ware is thought to have originated 
in Xochicalco. The western zone of 
the States of Mexico and Morelos 
was the territory of Coyotlatelco and 
Matlatzinca ceramics, which de- 
veloped into Mazapa; the eastern 
zone had Aztec I pottery which later 
became Aztec II. 

1955 Una efigie femenina de madera 
de Cualac, Guerrero. Mex. Antig., 

Unusual discovery in a cave, some- 
what in the tradition of the Pueblo 

-, 1955. Jaschke, Paul P. 

1953 Zum Correlations-problem der 
Maya-Zeitrechnung. Zeit. Ethn., 

Subjects various correlation formu- 
lae to astronomical tests and, as one 
would expect from this method, con- 
cludes that the Kreichgauer corre- 
lation is best. 

Jakeman, M. Wells 

1950 An expedition to Central America. 
Impr. era, 53:112-14, 144-147. 

Popular account of itinerary, ex- 
periences, and results of an expedi- 
tion to the Xicalango district of 
western Campeche. Notes a large 
earthen embankment, possibly a 
dyke or fortification, at Aguacatal. 
The author believes that the main 
period at Aguacatal is pre-Classic. 

1951 Chronology of the Mesoamerican 
area. A brief summary of the 
latest results of archaeological re- 
search in Mexico and Central 
America. B. U. Archaeol. Soc, 2: 

Proposes five "ages" of Middle 
American cultural development eind 
defines their achievements and 
diagnostic traits. Illustrated. 



1952a An archaeological reconnaissance 
of the Xicalango area of western 
Campeche, Mexico. B. U. Arch- 
aeol. Soc, 3:16-44. 

Report of explorations in the south- 
ern Gulf coast area, with a brief 
description of structures and pot- 
tery collected. 

1952b The historical recollections of 
Caspar Antonio Chi. An early 
source-account of ancient Yucatan. 
Brigham Young U. Pub. Archaeol. 
and Early Hist., no. 3. 

Historical and ethnological data on 
the 16th-century Maya. 

1953 An unusual tree-of-life sculpture 
from ancient Central America. B. 
U. Archaeol. Soc, 4:26-49. 

The scene depicted on Stela 5, Izta- 
pa, is compared in 13 elements to 
details of Lehi's vision of the tree 
of life in the Book of Mormon. 

1954 (tr.) The Relacion de Motul. B. 
U. Archaeol. Soc, 5:22-29. 

Extracts, which treat of religious 
beliefs and practices, some social 
organizations, wars, and some ma- 
terial culture. 

Jennings, Jesse D. 

1950 On the validity of Tepexpan Man. 
B. Texas Archaeol. Paleon. Soc, 

Critical examination of the meth- 
odology and recording of the Tepex- 
pan Man and related discoveries. 

Jimenez, Tomas Fidias 

1947-48 Un punto sobre ciencia hiera- 
tica de los pipiles. Tzunpame, afio 
7, pp. 41-50. 

Notes on Quetzalcoatl. 

Jimenez Moreno, Wigberto 

1948a Historia antigua de la zona ta- 
rasca. In El Occidente de Mexico, 
pp. 146-57. 

History of the Tarascans according 
to early sources. 

1948b Informe de la Seccion de Lingiiis- 
tica, Historia y Etnografia Anti- 
guas. In El Occidente de Mexico, 
pp. 217-21. 

Resume of the papers on these sub- 
jects, read at the Round Table in 
Mexico, 1946. 

1950 The importance of Xaltocan in the 
ancient history of Mexico. Meso- 
amer. Notes, 2: 133-38. 

Brief outline of Toltec, Chichimec, 
and Mexica history and Xaltocan's 
place in this story, with notes on the 
Xaltocan dynasty and sources for 
its history. 

1954-55 Sintesis de la historia precolon- 
ia del Valle de Mexico. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 14:219-36. 

Concise summary of Mexican pre- 
history, prepared for the VI Mesa 
Redonda, whose studies concen- 
trated on the Valley of Mexico. Use- 
ful chart. 

Johnson, Frederick, comp. 

1951 Radiocarbon dating: a report on 
the program to aid in the develop- 
ment of methods of dating, assem- 
bled . . . for the committee on ra- 
dioactive carbon 14 of the Amer- 
ican Anthropological Association 
and the Geological Society of 
America. Mem. Soc. Am. Arch- 
aeol., no. 8. 

Jones, Morris R. 

1950-51 Survey and base map at Maya- 
pan Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Year Books 49-50. 

1952 Map of the ruins of Mayapan, Yu- 
catan, Mexico. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Rept. 1. 

JuDD, Neil M 

A new-found votive ax from Mex- 
ico. Am. Antiq., 17:139-41. 

Basalt axe in Olmec or La Venta 
style, depicting jaguar god. 




Kelley, David H. 

1954 Further comment to an article on 
ancient Mexican stellar beliefs by 
C. A. Burland. New World Antiq., 

The bearing of Luiseno, Huichol, 
and other native beliefs on ancient 
Mexican astrology. 

Kelley, J. Charles 

1951 A Bravo Valley aspect component 
of the Lower Rio Conchas Valley. 
Am. Antiq., 17:114-19. 

Surface collection and excavation of 
a house site in Chihuahua, occupied 
between about A.D. 1200 and 1400. 

1956 Settlement patterns in north-cen- 
tral Mexico. In Willey, 1956, pp. 

Settlement patterns in Zacatecas, 
Durango, and Chihuahua. 

, AND William J. Shackelford 

1954 Preliminary notes on the Weicker 
site, Durango, Mexico. Palacio, 61: 

Architecture, pottery, and other arti- 
facts of a small agricultural com- 
munity, and its possible relations to 
the Chalchihuites prehistoric cul- 

Kelly, Isabel 

1948 Ceramic provinces of northwest 
Mexico. In El Occidente de Mexi- 
co, pp. 55-71. 

Excellent summary of 14 ceramic 
provinces or cultural sub-regions, to- 
gether with discussion of their 
chronology and interrelationships. 
An invaluable introduction to the 
archaeology of this area. 

1949 The archaeology of the Autlan- 
Tuxcacuesco area of Jalisco, 2: 
The Tuxcacuesco-Zapotitlan Zone. 
U. California Press, Ibero-Ameri- 
cana, no. 27. 

Important contribution to the little- 
known archaeology of western Mex- 
ico. A series of diverse influences 
from central and southern hearths is 
recognized, and a correlation be- 
tween culture sequences in Sinaloa, 
Jalisco, Colima, and the Valley of 
Mexico is suggested. 

Kidder, Alfred Vincent 

1948a John Lloyd Stephens. B. Panam. 
Union, 82:245-47. 

Address at the dedication of the 
commemorative plaque in New 

1948b Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala: Ad- 
denda and corrigenda. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 89. 

Important supplement to the 1946 
report by Kidder, Jennings, and 
Shook. Contains a preliminary ac- 
count of the rich Miraflores phase 
discoveries and the pre -Miraflores 
Las Charcas phase. Closes the sup- 
posed hiatus between Esperanza 
and Amatle-Pamplona phases by 
assigning the latter to the Late Clas- 
sic period. Further discussion of the 
correlation problem. 

1948c Sylvanus Griswold Morley, 1883- 
1948. Palacio, 55:267-74. 

Reminiscences of Dr. Morley, who 
died September 2, 1948. 

1948-50 Annual report of the chairman 
of the Division of Historical Re- 
search. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year 
Books 47-49. 

Administrative report on the activi- 
ties of the Division. 

1949a Certain archaeological specimens 
from Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 92. 

Useful assemblage of descriptive 
notes and discussion of miscellane- 
ous artifacts from private and 
museum collections hitherto not re- 

1949b La importancia arqueologica de 
Guatemala. Antr. Hist. Gtuit., 1: 

Review of the cultural sequence of 
prehistoric Guatemala, with dis- 
cussion of the pre-Classic horizons 
and statements of problems for 
future investigation. 

1949c Jades from Guatemala. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 91. 

Some hitherto undescribed jades are 
illustrated and assigned to chrono- 
logical periods on the basis of a se- 
quence established at Nebaj. 

1950 Certain archaeological specimens 
from Guatemala: II. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 95. 

Continuation of a useful series of 
descriptions of incidental finds, pur- 
chases, and gifts to the Guatemala 
National Museum through the Car- 
negie Institution. 



1951 Some key problems of New World 
prehistory. In Homenaje Caso, pp. 

Present state of knowledge and ma- 
jor unsolved problems in Middle 
American archaeology for Palaeo- 
Indian, Basic Agricultural, and For- 
mative times. 

1954 Miscellaneous archaeological spe- 
cimens from Mesoamerica. Carne- 
gie Inst. Wash., Note 117. 

Useful record of artifacts not hith- 
erto described in the Carnegie In- 
stitution's archaeological program. 

-, AND Gordon F. Ekholm 

1951 Some archaeological specimens 
from Pomona, British Honduras. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 102. 

Description of the contents of two 
graves, at least one of them Early 
Classic, in a mound in North Stann 
Creek Valley. Among the contents 
was an unusually large jade earplug 
flare with incised glyphs. 

-, 1952; 
- 1951. 

See Shook, Edwin M., and - 
Smiith, A. Ledyard, and 

Kimball, J. D. 

1956 Das Konigsgemach in Maya-Tem- 
pel der Inschriften in Palenque. 
Atlantis, 28:201-08. 

Another account of the famous tomb, 
with fine photographs, restorations, 
and a full-page color reproduction of 
the jade mosaic mask. 


1948a Civilizing the Chichimecs. A chap- 
ter in the culture history of an- 
cient Mexico. In Some Educational 
and Anthropological Aspects of 
Latin America, pp. 80-85. 

Statement of the complex and often 
conflicting classifications of peoples 
as given by various native sources, 
a problem to be solved in the case 
of Toltec-Chichimec relations which 
offer a rewarding study in prehis- 
toric acculturation. 

1948b Etnografia antigua. In El Occi- 
dente de Mexico, pp. 134-36. 

Non-Mesoamerican culture traits of 
western Mexico, and suggestions for 
the study of the "mesoamericani- 
zacion" of this region. 

1950 The Mexican calendar and the 
founding of Tenochtitlan-Tlate- 
lolco. Trans. New York Acad. Sci., 
ser. 2, 12: 126-32. 

Examines the year counts of various 
native sources relative to the found- 
ing of the twin cities, equating 
Mexican dates with the Christian 
calendar, and selects 1369-70 as the 
most probable date. (The traditional 
date has been 1325.) 

1951 El autor de la segunda parte de la 
Cronica Mexicayotl. In Homenaje 
Caso, pp. 225-27. 

Evidence that Chimalpahin did not 
merely copy and annotate the sec- 
ond half of this chronicle, but was 
actually its author. Includes a valu- 
able table of the rulers of Tenochtit- 
lan and their dates according to 15 
principal sources. 

1954-55a Calendarios tenochca, tlatelol- 
ca y otros. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 

Finds that the Tenochcas and 
Tlatelolcas used calendars that were 
distinct, although based on the same 
principles. They differed in the 
month that began the year and in 
the day count as well. 

1954-55b Composicion etnica y organi- 
zacion politica de Chalco segiin las 
relaciones de Chimalpahin. R. 
Mex. Estud. Antr., 14:297-98. 

Considerable information reduced to 
a brief outline. 

1954-55C Land tenure in ancient Mexi- 
co: a preliminary sketch. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 14:351-61. 

Three basic types of land tenure and 
three social groups that owned and/ 
or tilled the land are described. To 
understand ancient Mexican society, 
one must be aware of these social 
groupings and their relation to com- 
mon or private property. 

Knorozov, Y. V. 

1954 La antigua escritura de los pueblos 
de America Central. Mexico, Fon- 
do de Cultura Popular (Biblioteca 
obrera, no. 5). 

Spanish translation of an article in 
a Soviet ethnographic journal (1952). 

1956a La escritura de los antiguos mayas. 
Traduccion del ruso de Adolfo S. 
Vasquez. Mexico, Instituto de In- 
tercambio Cultural Mexicano-Ruso 
(Col. Ideas). 

Spanish translation of another at- 
tempt to read Mayan hieroglyphs by 
combining morphemic elements. 



1956b Estudio de los jeroglificos mayas 
en la U.S.S.R. Khana, 2:183-99. 

A summary of the author's theories 
regarding Mayan hieroglyphic writ- 
ing, with nine pages of glyph trans- 

1956c New data on the Maya written 
language. J. Soc. Am., n.s., 45: 

Maya spelling employed regular 
and irregular phonetics, ideographic 
writing, and mixed phonetic-ideo- 
graphic. In incomplete or defective 
spelling, some glyphs (representing 
phonemes or morphemes) were 
omitted. Notes changes from the 
ancient Maya of the codices to the 
present Maya. Differences between 
language of the manuscripts and 
that inscribed on stone are thematic. 

Krickeberg, Walter 

1948 Das Mittelamericanische Ballspiel 
und seine Religiose Symbolik. 
Paideuma, 3:118-90. 

Exhausive study of archaeological 
and documentary information con- 
cerning the ball game, especially the 
symbolism associated therewith, 
plus an added section on North and 
South American and West Indian 

1949 Felsplastik und Felsbilder bei den 
Kulturvolkern Altamerikas, mit 
besonderer Beriicksichtigung Mex- 
cos. Vol. 1. 1, Die Andenlander; 
2, Die Felsentempel, in Mexico. 
Berlin, Palmen-Verlag, vormals 
Dietrich Reimer. 

Over half (p. 74 and following) of 
this exhaustive study treats of Mid- 
dle America. Krickeberg finds that 
the subterranean structures of 
Xochicalco and Cacaxtlan are 
younger than the south Mexican 
grotto- and chamber-tombs, which 
he views as prototypes of the simple 
antechamber and main-chamber 
plan, the latter in turn developing 
later into more elaborate under- 
ground systems. 

1950a Ancient America. Photographs by 
K. Peter Kafeld. London, Bats- 

About half of the short introduction 
and 14 of the 47 magnificent photo- 
graphic reproductions in full color 
are of Middle American archae- 

1950b Bauform und Weltbild im alten 
Mexico. In Adolf Ellegard Jensen 
(ed.), Mythe, Mensch und Um- 
welt, pp. 294-333. Bamberg, Ger- 
many, St. Otto-Verlag. 

Religious and mythological symbol- 
ism in the form and decoration of 
ancient architectural forms, particu- 
larly the stepped or terraced pyra- 
mid. (The book cited is also vol. 4 
of Paideuma.) 

1950c Olmenken und Tolteken: nach den 
jiingsten Ergebnissen der mexi- 
kanischen Archaologie, I. Zeit. 
Ethn., 75:13-35. 

Reviews in considerable detail all 
the archaeological data related to 
the so-called Olmec style, and vari- 
ous aspects of the Olmec chronologi- 
cal position and relationships. Makes 
the results of the Tuxtla Gutierrez 
"Mesa Redonda" available for the 
first time in German, with sum- 
maries of the discoveries of Olmec 
style from Central Mexico to the 
Pacific Coast of Guatemala; sug- 
gests possible relationships in South 
America (San Agustin and Chavin). 

1951 Altmexicanischer Muschelzierat 
mit einem Relief aztekischen Stils. 
hi Homenaje Caso, pp. 229-42. 
Description of a hitherto unpub- 
lished shell ornament lost in the 
bombing of Berlin, with an inter- 
pretation of the smoking-mirror de- 

1956 Altmexikanische Kulturen. Ber- 
lin, Safari Verlag. 

The best general text on Mexican 
prehistory yet published, this hand- 
some book with over 500 illustra- 
tions presents both historical and 
theoretical data. An English edition 
would be enthusiastically welcomed. 

Krieger, Alex D. 

1948 Importance of the "Gilmore Cor- 
ridor" in culture contacts between 
Middle America and the eastern 
United States. B. Texas Archaeol. 
Paleon. Soc, 19:155-78. 

Important paper discussing possible 
routes of contact between North and 
Middle America and suggesting the 
Gilmore Corridor of Texas as the 
most plausible. 

Kroeber, Alfred L. 

1948 Anthropology: race, language, 
culture, psychology, prehistory. 
Rev. ed. New York, Harcourt 

Certain sections of this general an- 
thropology textbook comprise an ex- 
cellent broad analysis of Middle 
American archaeological culture 
development in each. Chiefly valu- 
able for its definition of nuclear 
and subnuclear regions of high civi- 



KuBLER, George, and Charles Gibson 

1951 The Tovar calendar. Mem. Con- 
necticut Acad. Arts Sci., v. 11. 
Exhaustive and penetrating analysis 
of a 1585 Aztec calendar. Among the 
very important conclusions are that 
uniformly compact tables of symbols 
tor the Mexican 20-day period were 
a colonial invention stimulated by 
European calendrical practices and 
reinforced by Indian traditions of 
day signs and tribute collection 
periods; that this was only one of 
several examples of the stimulus 
given by conquest and colonization 
to further elaboration of parts of 
Indian culture, within Indian terms 
and limits (e.g., syllabic notation and 
maguey-fiber paper manufacture); 
that no unitary principle of corre- 
lation can reconcile all the conflict- 
ing Mexican equation points; that 
variants in the beginning dates in 
vague-year counts reflect adaptation 
to climatic and agricultural rhy- 
thms; that the Tovar calendar is an- 
other result of the marked 16th- 
century tendency to generalize and 
systematize the operation of the 
calendar. Following this important 
report are a useful handlist and a 
translation of Tovar-Acosta cor- 
respondence. Excellent plates repro- 
duce the manuscript and compara- 
tive materials. 

Kutscher, Gerdt 

1948 Le "Memorial breve" de Chimal- 
pahin, un manuscrit mexicain 
inedit de la Bibliotheque Nation- 
ale, a Paris. Acts Intl. Cong. Am.., 
pp. 407-18. 

The manuscript contains data on the 
ancient history of Amaquemeca- 
Chalco, the Olmeca-Xicalanca, and 
the Mexica, with a genealogy of 
Colhuacan rulers. 

Ladd, John 

1957 A stratigraphic trench at Sitio 
Conte, Panama. Am. Antiq., 22: 

Establishes a sequence of Santa 
Maria Polychrome, Code Poly- 
chrome, and El Hatillo types, and 
their position relative to earlier re- 
mains in the Parita Bay region. 

Lamb, Dana, and Ginger Lamb 

1951 Quest for the lost city. New York, 

A statement on the jacket that "the 
Lambs have made a considerable 
contribution to archaeological 

knowledge," is misleading. This is 
purely an adventure book; the 
archaeological content is so vague 
as to be worthless. 

Lanuza, Jose Luis 

1956 Los mayas, griegos de America. 
Vea y lea, ano 10, no. 247. 

Larde y Larin, Jorge 

1950a Cronologia arqueologica de El 
Salvador. A. Mils. Nac, 1:72-79. 

Discussion of the antiquity of re- 
mains covered by volcanic deposits 
in the valley of San Salvador Cuz- 

1950b Indice provisional de los lugares 
del territorio salvadoreiio en don- 
de se encuentran ruinas u otros 
objetos de interes arqueologico. 
A. Mus. Nac, 1:44-50. 

Location of 132 archaeological sites, 
listed alphabetically. 

1950c El Salvador antiguo. San Salva- 
dor, Ministerio de Cultura (Bib- 
lioteca del Pueblo, no. 10) . 

Collection of articles, including 
seven on archaeology. 

1951a Los petrograbados de Yologual. A. 
Mus. Nac, 2:65-66. 

Zoomorphic petroglyphs in Lenca 
country. Extracted from R. del 
Ministerio de Cultura, San Salvador, 
6:197-98 (1948). 

1951b Region arqueologica de Chalchua- 
pa. A. Mus. Nac, 2:53-56. 

Brief description of the archaeo- 
logical zone encompassing Tazumal, 
Pampe, El Trapiche, Casa Blanca, 
and Las Victorias, with a map of 
the region by Stanley H. Hoggs. 

Lehmann, Henri 

1948a Resultat d'un voyage de prospec- 
tion archeologique sur les cotes du 
Pacifique, nord de I'etat de Gue- 
rrero et sud de I'etat de Michoa- 
can. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 423- 

Sees Mexican highland ("Toltec and 
Aztec") in the Petatlan and Rio 
Balsas zones; two main archaeologi- 
cal "styles," one of them Mexican 
plateau, the other possibly from Co- 
lima, in the third zone, north of 
Rio Balsas; and South American re- 
lationship with all three. 5 plates. 



1948b Une statue azteque en resine. J. 
Soc. Am., n.s., 37:269-74. 

Description of a resinous figurine 
and documentary references relating 
to its possible identity as a goddess 
of water and its ritual use. 

1951 Le personnage couche sur le dos: 
sujet commun dans rarcheologie 
du Mexique et de I'Equateur. In 
Tax, 1951, pp. 291-98. 

Believes that the similarity de- 
scribed indicates commercial ex- 
change between Mesoamerica and 
Ecuador, chiefly along the Pacific 
coast from Nayarit and Colima to 
Esmeraldas, and to the Valley of 

1952 L'archeologie d'Orizaba, Mexique, 
d'apres la collection Biart du Mu- 
see de I'Homme. J. Soc. Am., n.s., 

Classification of the Biart collection 
according to styles, with compara- 
tive notes. 

1953a Les civilisations precolombiennes. 

Paris, Presses Universitaires de 


Any general book on American 
archaeology by an authority is wel- 
come, for there are so few. This one, 
however, is disappointing in its 
Mesoamerican section, stressing 
Mexican archaeology almost ex- 
clusively, and containing some 
weak and out-of-date materials and 
theories for both continents. 

1953b On Noel Morss' "Cradled infant 
figurines." Am. Antiq., 19:78-80. 

Further discussion of recumbent 

1954 Differentes formes de sacrifices 
humains practiques a Chicol 
(Guatemala) d'apres les fouilles 
effectues en 1954. A. 31st Intl. 
Cong. Am., 2- 673-82. 

Decapitations, multiple burials, and 
seated burials in couples at a site 
near Zaculeu. 

Lehmann, Walter 

1949 Sterbende Gotter und christliche 
Heilsbotschaft. Stuttgart, W. Kohl- 
hammer Verlag (Quellenwerke 
zur alten Geschichte Amerikas 
aufgezeichnet in den Sprachen der 
Eingeborenen, no. 3) . 

A posthumous work, the third in 
this series of German translations of 
important Indian source materials. 
Includes, in an introduction, specula- 
tions on absolute dating, trans-Paci- 
fic prehistoric contacts, and condi- 

tions prior to and just after the 
Spanish conquest of this region. 
Since it was written many years 
ago, this work contains some now 
out-of-date hypotheses, but in sev- 
eral places it is curiously prophetic. 

Lemoine, Ernesto 

See Cook de Leonard, Carmen, and , 


Lenz, Hans 

1948 El papel indigena mexicano. His- 
toria y supervivencia. Mexico, 
Editorial Cultura. 

De luxe edition, with numerous 
illustrations and 11 actual samples 
of ancient Mexican papers. Dis- 
cusses the technical, religious, and 
social aspects of paper manufacture. 

1949 Las fibras y las plantas del papel 
indigena mexicano. Cimd. Am., 
45: 157-69. 

Interesting technical description of 
the materials and methods of pre- 
paration of native Mexican codices; 
extract from his 1948. 

Leon, Antonio de 

1953 Antigiiedades zapotecas. Descu- 
brimientos hechos recientemente 
en las ruinas de Guiengola, de- 
partamento de Oajaca. Mexico, 
Vargas Rea (Biblioteca de histori- 
adores mexicanos) . 

A 3800-word article stretched into 
a 45-page bound book. This should 
have been a brief news item in 
some journal. 

Leon Portilla, Miguel 

1956a La filosofia nahuatl. Mexico, Inst. 
Indigenista Interamericano. 

Treating the several Nahuatl-speak- 
ing tribes as one culture, this book 
examines early sources, particularly 
the codices, for clues to cosmology, 
theology, metaphysics, and Nahuatl 
views of man and nature. 

1956b El problema del albedrio humano 
en el pensamiento nahuatl. Tla- 
toani, 2:41-44. 

Intellectual, philosophic, metaphysi- 
cal, and theological aspects of 
Nahuatl thought, values, and world 
view, derived from early sources. 

— , AND Salvador Mateo Higuera 
1957 Catalogo de los codices indigenas 

del Mexico antiguo. Supp. to B. 

Bib. S. Hac. Cr. Pub., 3:111. 

Pictorial codices treating of prehis- 
toric matters, their provenience, for- 
mat, and content. 



Leonard, Carmen Cook de 

See Cook de Leonard, Carmen. 

Leslie, Robert 

See Foshag, William F., and — 


Lima, Oswaldo Goncalves de 

1956 El maguey y el pulque en los co- 
dices mexicanos. Mexico, Fondo 
de Cultura Economica. 

Exhaustive compendium of the de- 
pictions and other occurrences of 
these ceremonial traits in native 

Linne, S. 

1948 Dental decoration in ancient Mex- 
ico. Ethnos, 13:190-93. 

Notes on the composition of the 
cement used for fastening inlays. 

1952 Archaeological problems in Gue- 
rrero, Mexico. Ethnos, 17: 142-48. 
Description of various relics from 
the Iguala region. 

1956a Radiocarbon dates in Teotihuacan. 
Ethnos, 21:180-93. 

Plausibility and significance of 
various dates relative to local 
stratigraphy and the correlation of 

1956b Treasures of Mexican art: two 
thousand years of art and art 
handicraft. Stockholm, Nordisk 

Also issued the same year in a 
Swedish edition, this album of fine 
photographs has long and informa- 
tive captions and an introduction 
providing a cultural-historical back- 
ground, which, if not wholly up-to- 
date in its concepts, is still far better 
than the usual art-book preface. 

Lister, Robert H. 

1948a An archaeological survey of the 
Region about Teloloapan, Guerre- 
ro. In El Occidente de Mexico, pp. 
In northern Guerrero. Recognizes 
two pottery complexes, the northern 
of these identified by Matlatzinca, 
Tlahucia, and Aztec wares. 

1948b Summary of excavations at Coju- 
matlan, Michoacan. In El Occi- 
dente de Mexico, pp. 26-27. 

Two archaeological horizons: the 
earlier with Mazapan affiliations, 
the later with Mixteca-Puebla. 

1949 Excavations at Cojumatlan, Mi- 
choacan, Mexico. U. New Mexico 
Pub. Anthr., no. 5. 

Report on a little-known archaeo- 
logical zone, at a site with Mazapan 
and Mixteca - Puebla affiliations. 
Seeks to correlate archaeological 
with historical Tarascan evidences 
and discusses route and method of 
Mixteca-Puebla influence in north- 
west Mexico. 

1953 Excavations in Cave Valley, Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. Ann. Antiq., 19: 

Preliminary account of cave exca- 
vations indicating Mogollon culture 
300 miles south of its previously 
known distribution. 

1955a Cliff dwellings of the northern 
Sierra Madre Occidental. Mex. 
Antig., 8: 141-56. 

Interesting excavations in northern 
Mexico, suggesting that Mogollon 
culture, which later influenced 
Casas Grandes, may have come up 
from Chihuahua and Sonora, rather 
than from the north as generally 

1955b The present status of the archae- 
ology of western Mexico: a dis- 
tributional study. U. Colorado 
Studies, Series in Anthr., no. 5. 

General archaeological picture and 
history of research, listing 46 sites 
in 11 zones. 

, AND Agnes M. Howard 

1955 The Chalchihuites culture of 
northwestern Mexico. Am. Antiq., 

Descriptive summary of material 
culture and its possible affiliations 

LiTTMAN, Edwin R. 

1957 Ancient Mesoamerican mortars, 
plasters, and stuccos: Comalcalco. 
Am. Antiq., 23: 2,135-40. 

Details of this type of construction 
and ornament. At Comalcalco shell 
was probably the source of lime. 

LiZARDi Ramos, Cesar 

1949 Mas fechas mayas. Mex. Antig., 

Future epigraphic data from Quin- 
tana Roo and Chiapas. 

1951a Descifracion de los codices mish- 
tecas. R. R., Dec. 30, pp. 52-54. 

Account of research in the Mixtec 
codices by Alfonso Caso and Wig- 
berto Jimenez Moreno. 



1951b Dioses mexicanos en el norte de 
Mexico. R. R., Dec. 16, pp. 66-67. 
Stone sculptures at the Ateneo 
Fuente of Saltillo, Coahuila. 

1951c Ofrenda a los dioses del ague. 
R. R., Dec. 2, pp. 64-65. 

Sculpture and other antiquities of 
Atliliquecan, Los Reyes, Coyoacan. 

1951d Importante monumento mexicano 
se halla en Estados Unidos. R. R., 
Sept. 9, pp. 22-24. 

History and description of a Chiapas 
stela in the Arensberg Collection of 
the Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

1952a El dios recostado. R. R., Jan. 20, 
pp. 96-97. 

Discussion of certain chac mool 

1952b Una expedicion a Guerrero. R. R., 
Jan. 6, pp. 52-54. 

Description of wooden and stone 
objects, woven sandal, mummy, cave 
painting, and an "Olmec" mask from 
caves near Cualac. 

1952c Mexico asombra a Europa. R. R., 
June 22, pp. 40-41. 

Impact of ancient Mexican art on 

1952d Mexico bajo luz enganosa. R. R., 
Mar. 23, pp. 68-71. 

Two devastating reviews exposing 
Leonard Andre Bonnet's La divina- 
tion chez les Aztlantes and Dana 
and Ginger Lamb's Quest jor the 
lost city. 

1952e Una ofrenda preciosa en Uxmal. 
R. R., Apr. 13, pp. 66-67. 

Cache of 867 artifacts of jade, shell, 
coral, bone, and "alabaster." 

1952f Una pagina de arqueologia de 
Guanajuato. R. R., Apr. 20, pp. 78- 

Implications of the style of certain 
clay figtirines. 

1952g La Venus de Tepoztlan. R. R., Jan. 
13, pp. 54-57. 

Archaeological remains and a stone 
figurine from Morelos. 

1953 Los acompanados del Xiuhmolpilli 
en el Codice Borbonico. Yan, 2:95- 
Examination of the hypothesis that 
the day which gives its name to the 
year is the same as the year bearer. 
Illustrations from the Codex Bor- 

1954a El dios reclinado. Pro. 30th Intl. 
Cong. Am., pp. 1-4. 

The chac mool identified as a tlaloc, 
or rain god. 

1954b La lapida de la camara interior. 
Pro. 30th Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 27-28. 
Describes and interprets the scene 
and associated hieroglyphs carved 
on the sarcophagus of the Palenque 
subterranean tomb, and deciphers 
the 9th-cycle date. 

1954-55 Sincronologia azteca-europea. 
R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 14:237-55. 
Further discussion of the difficulties 
in correlating the various Aztec 
chronologies with the European 

1955 ^Conocfan el xihuitl los teotihua- 
canos? Mex. Antig., 8:219-23. 

Glyph in a mural of Tetitla, Teo- 
tihuacan, contains the number 14, 
suggesting that it may belong to the 
365-day xihuitl rather than the 260- 
day tonalpohualli. 

1956a Estatuaria tenek huasteca. i4nda 
Mios, 15:4-5, 8. 

Drawings and description of sculp- 
ture from Tamuin. 

1956b La musica pre-cortesiana. Cuad. 
Am., 85: 193-203. 

Illustrated article inspired by Marti, 

Long, Richard C. E. 

1948a Dr. Makemson's new Maya corre- 
lation. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 

Prefers Makemson's earlier paper 
which supported the Goodman- 
Martinez-Thompson correlation. 

1948b Observations of the sun among 
the Ixil of Guatemala. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 87. 

Although this paper treats of mod- 
ern Indian practice, it has important 
bearing on aspects of the ancient 

1948c Some remarks on Maya arithme- 
tic. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 88. 
Suggestions concerning possible cal- 
culating methods employed by the 
ancient Maya. 

LoNGYEAR, John M., Ill 

1948 A sub-pottery deposit at Copan, 
Honduras. Am. Antiq., 13:248-49. 
Short but important notice of a layer 
of charred animal bones and flint 
and obsidian chips, possibly a hu- 
man hearth, underlying Formative 
period remains and separated from 
the latter by almost half a meter 
of sterile river clay. 



1951 A historical interpretation of Co- 
pan archeology. In Tax, 1951, pp. 

Socio - cultural reconstruction of 
Copan prehistory, from Archaic to 
post-Classic times. The Maya aban- 
doned Copan at the zenith of its 
cultural development. 

1952 Copan ceramics: a study of south- 
eastern Maya pottery. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Pub. 597. 

Summary of the ceramic sequence 
at Copan, description of the graves, 
tombs, and substela caches, exterior 
relations as revealed through pot- 
tery, and conclusions regarding 
Copan's history and archaeological 
problems in the southeastern area. 
Favors an correlation 
and suggests that the Archaic (For- 
mative) lasted longer in Honduras. 
Part 2 contains 118 excellent and 
fully captioned illustrations. 

1957 Further notes on Copan incense 
burners. Am. Antiq., 22:287-88. 
Correction of some errors and fur- 
ther discussion of some debatable 
points of Copan pottery. 

Lopez Gonzalez, Valentin 

1953 Breve historia antigua del estado 
de Morelos. Cuernavaca, Mexico, 
Depto. Turismo y Publicidad de 
Morelos (Cuadernos de cultura 
morelense, no. 1). 

Brief review of the prehistory of the 
state of Morelos; an introductory 
guide but not for the specialist. 

See Pina Chan, Roman, and , 1952. 

LoREAU, Leonard 

1954 Caltonac. Palacio, 61:13-19. 

A visit to ruins in Puebla, Mexico. 

Lorenzo, Jose Luis 

1953 A fluted point from Durango, 
Mexico. Am. Antiq., 18:394-95. 
Clovis-type fluted point from a hill- 
top surface in the Sierra Madre 

1955 Los concheros de la costa de Chia- 
pas. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 7: 

Further investigations of shell heaps 
of presumed early date (see Drucker, 

See Sokoloff, V. P., and , 1953. 

LoTHROP, Samuel K. 

1948 The archeology of Panama. HSAI, 

Valuable concise summary, profuse- 
ly illustrated. 

1950 Archaeology of Southern Vera- 
guas, Panama. With appendices 
by W. C. Root, Eleanor B. Adams, 
and Doris Stone. Mem. Peahody 
Mus., vol. 9, no. 3. 

Introduction contains extensive his- 
torical and ethnological back- 
ground material. Main report treats 
of the archaeological remains, stone 
artifacts, pottery, and metal work, 
with exhaustive comparative ma- 
terial and a thoughtful discussion 
of intercontinental contacts and 
trade. Concludes that during much 
of the prehistoric period Panama 
was a refuge area of static cultures. 
150 figs., 10 tables. 

1952 Metals from the Cenote of Sacri- 
fice, Chichen Itza, Yucatan. With 
sections by W. C. Root and Tati- 
ana Proskouriakoff and an ap- 
pendix by William Harvey. Mem. 
Peahody Mus., vol. 10, no. 2. 

Do not be misled by the modest title. 
Besides its masterful technical and 
stylistic analysis of the Cenote 
metals, this monograph contains 
valuable new information on Maya 
religion and ethnology derived from 
interpretation of the relics and an 
almost definitive treatment of Maya 
and New World metallurgy, to- 
gether with their implications in the 
correlation problem. Magnificently 

1955 Jade and string sawing in north- 
eastern Costa Rica. Am. Antiq., 

Ingenious use of jade styles and 
techniques to analyze the relation- 
ships of Costa Rican jade ornament. 

1956 Jewelry from the Panama Canal 
Zone. Archaeology, 9:34-40. 

Gold, shell-and-bone, and ceramic 
offerings in graves at Venado Beach. 

Lowe, Gareth W., Keith A. Dixon, et al. 

1957 Summary notes (no. 1). New 
World Archaeol. Found., Pub. 2. 

Preliminary summary of results of 
field work at Chiapa de Corzo 
(Chiapas), plus a report on labora- 
tory research, meetings, and other 


1948 Honduras maya. Etnologia y ar- 
queologia de Honduras. Estudios 
mayas. Orientaciones. Bih. Soc. 
Antr. Arqueol. 

Copiously illustrated book, treating 
of innumerable aspects of native 
Honduras, and apparently devoted 
to the conclusion that Honduras was 
entirely "Maya" and a hearth of that 




McAfee, Byron, and Robert H. Barlow 

1948 Unos anales coloniales de Tlate- 
lolco, 1519-1633. In Tlatelolco . . ., 

Transcription and translation of a 

Nahuatl MS. 

, , AND Fernando Horcasitas 

1952 Anales de San Gregorio Acapulco, 
1520-1606. Tlalocan, 3:103-41. 

Paleography and transcription, Na- 
huatl and Spanish, with modern 
Spanish translation. 

McGiMSEY, Charles R., Ill 

1956 Cerro Mangote: a preceramic site 
in Panama. Am. Antiq., 22: 151-161. 
Preceramic shell midden in Code 
Province; antedates Monagrillo cul- 

-, 1952, 

See Willey, Gordon R., and 

MacNeish, Richard S. 

1950 A synopsis of the archaeological 
sequence in the Sierra de Tamau- 
lipas. R. Mex. Estiid. Antr., 11: 

Sequence of cultures in Tamaulipas 
cave excavations, from possibly Late 
Pluvial times to 1785. Chart sug- 
gests correlation of chronologies 
in Valley of Mexico, Tampico- 
Panuco, Sierra de Tamaulipas, 
northern Tamaulipas coastal plain, 
and the Rio Grande Delta. 

1954 An early archaeological site near 
Panuco, Vera Cruz. Trans. Am. 
Phil. Soc, n.s., 44:539-641. 

Report on excavations, with an im- 
portant discussion of their bearing 
on the Middle American pre-Classic 
(Formative) cultures. Numerous il- 
lustrations and tables. 

1955 Ancient maize and Mexico. Arch- 
aeology, 8:108-15. 

Excellent and well-illustrated pre- 
liminary report on important Basic 
Agricultural and Formative period 
cave discoveries in northeastern 

1956 Prehistoric settlement patterns on 
the northeastern periphery of 
Meso-America. In Willey, 1956, 
pp. 140-47. 

Recognizes seven classes of settle- 
ment pattern in Tamaulipas and 
adjacent parts of Veracruz and San 
Luis Potosi. 

See Whitaker, Thomas W., Hugh C. Cut- 
ler, and , 1957. 

Makemson, Maud W. 

1948 Christian Maya prophecies from 
the Tizimin manuscript. SW. J. 
Anth., 4:397-405. 

Transcription, translation, and dis- 
cussion of three pages from the 
Chilam Balam, containing agricul- 
tural prognostications and an ac- 
count of calamities; one of the latter 
equates April 19, 1629, with the 20th 
day of Yaxkin, according to Makem- 

1950 The Katun calendar of the Book 
of Tizimin. Am. Antiq., 16: 166-68. 

Data supporting the author's con- 
tention that the Katun 5 Ahau 
which began in 1594 (1 Muluc; 
Book oj Tizimin) was not fictitious, 
and that it coincides with a certain 
Katun 5 Ahau of the Makemson 

1957 The miscellaneous dates of the 
Dresden Codex. Vassar College 
Observatory, Pub. 6. 

Correlates Dresden ring-number 
dates with the Julian, according to 
the author's correlation, and notes 
the position of the planets relative 
to the sun and moon on those dates. 
Suggests the possible importance to 
the Maya of zodiacal constellations 
against which the sun, moon, and 
planets appear to move. 

Maldonado-Koerdell, Manuel 

1947-48 Las industrias prehistoricas de 
Mexico. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 

Brief and superficial comments on 
prehistoric Mexican stone, metal, 
and bone artifacts, following the 
Old World terminology. 

1951 Estudios etnobiologicos. IV: Sobre 
representaciones zoomorfas del 
antiguo Mexico. In Homenaje 
Caso, pp. 243-50. 

Attempt to identify species of 
monkey and Colima dog represented 
in ancient Mexican obsidian and 
pottery effigies. The Ateles monkey 
effigy's reported provenience is far 
outside the geographical limits of 
this species, and Maldonado believes 
the artist must have been intimately 
familiar with anatomy of this animal 
to depicit it so realistically. 



1952 Recientes hallazgos prehistoricos 
en la Cuenca de Mexico. Tlatoani, 

Stone artifacts associated with upper 
Becerra mammoth. 

, AND Luis Aveleyra Arroyo de Anda 

1949 Nota preliminar sobre dos artefac- 
tos del pleistoceno superior halla- 
dos en la region de Tequixquiac, 
Mexico. Mex. Antig., 7:155-61. 

Bone point, possibly of human work- 
manship, from the Upper Becerra 
and a fhnt point of certain human 
manufacture from the underlying 
Upper Pleistocene conglomerate, 
said to have been found in situ. 

See Aveleyra Arroyo de Anda, Luis, and 

, 1952; ibid., 1953; ibid., , 

and Pablo Martinez del Rio, 1956. 

Maler, Teobert, and Sylvanus G. Morley 

1953 El dintel 42 de Yaxchilan. Yan, 2: 

Joins the Maler description with 
the Morley analysis and adds a fine 
photograph by Juan D. Leonard. 

Margain, Carlos R. 

1952 La zona arqueologica de Tulan- 
cingo. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 6: 

Brief account of discoveries in Hi- 
dalgo. Inferior illustrations. 

Marquina, Ignacio 

1948-49 Sylvanus Griswold Morley, 
hombre de ciencia. R. Mex. Estud. 
Antr., 10:125-32. 

Commemorative address in honor 
of the famous Mayanist. Other trib- 
utes include those of R. E. Smith 
(Antr. Hist. Gnat., 1:71-73), J. E. S. 
Thompson (Am. Anthr., 51:293-97), 
and R. L. Roys (Am. Antiq., 14:215- 

1951 Arquitectura prehispanica. Mem. 
Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., no. 1. 

This volume of almost 1000 pages, 
with 800 illustrations, will doubtless 
be one of the permanently valuable 
reference books of American archae- 

1952 Palenque, nuevos descubrimien- 
tos. Cuad. Am., 65:199-202. 

More fine photographs of the sculp- 
ture and tomb discoveries at the 
Temple of the Inscriptions. 

Marshall, Donald 

1949 Archaeology of Far Fan Beach, 
Panama Canal Zone. Am. Antiq., 

Analysis of two collections at the 
Peabody Museum of Harvard, one 
supported by field notes by D. B. 

Marti, Samuel 

1951 Miisica de las Americas. Cuad. 
Am., 56:153. 

Review of prehistoric musical arti- 
facts and depictions in Middle 
American art. 

1953 Flautilla de la penitencia: fiesta 
grande de Tezcatlipoca. Cuad. Am., 

Identification of prehistoric artifacts 
and their use, from native soiu-ces 
and early accounts. 

1954 Musica prehispanica. Quia de la 
Sala de Musica Prehispanica. Me- 
xico, Mus. Nac. Antr. 

Prehistoric musical instruments, 
scales, harmony, etc., with illustra- 
tions from the museum. The same 
data are in an article, "Musica pre- 
cortesiana" (Cuad. Am., 78:149-55). 

1955 Instrumentos musicales precorte- 
sianos. Mexico, Inst. Nac. Antr. 

Learned or inferred from archaeo- 
logical and early documentary 
sources. See also Lizardi Ramos, 

Martinez del Rio, Pablo 

1948 Notas preliminaries. In Tlatelolco 
. . ., X. 

1953 La cueva mortuoria de la Cande- 
laria, Coahuila. Cuad. Am,., 70: 

Results of important discoveries in 
a Coahuila cave yielding, among 
much other material, woven and 
wooden artifacts. 

See Aveleyra Arroyo de Anda, Luis, 
Manuel Maldonado-Koerdell, and 
, 1956. 

Martinez Hernandez, Juan 

1948 Edad de la luna en la cronologia 
maya cristiana. El Diario de Yit- 
catdn, vol. 87, Dec. 5. 

Astronomical defense of the 584281 
correlation formula. 



Martinez Marin, Carlos 

1954-55 La "migracion acolhua" del 
siglo XIII. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 
Dating, linguistic, and ethnic prob- 
lems posed by the arrival of Tepa- 
nec, Otomi, and Acolhua peoples in 
the Valley of Mexico. 

Martinez Paredes, Domingo 

1955 iQue significa Ch'ich'en Itzam? 
Hist. Mex., 4:393-97. 

Proposes the meaning "I am the 
plumed serpent" from "ch'ich'en" 
(soy pdjaro) ; "Itzam" [Huastec] 
(serpiente). Argues that there are 
no pozos at the site, and if cenote 
were meant, they would have used 
"Dzonoot Itzam." 

1956a A Naat-Teoob: los libros sagrados 
mayas. B. Bib. (Mexico) , Decem- 
ber 19. 

Series of newspaper articles provid- 
ing an old-fashioned account of 
Maya culture and history. 

1956b Los Tamoanchas. B. Bib. (Mexi- 
co) , November 20 to December 2. 

Mason, J. Alden 

1951 On two Chinese figurines found in 

Mesoamerica. In Homenaje Caso, 

pp. 271-76. 

Of certain Chinese origin, these 
figurines found their way to Jalisco 
and Quezaltenango, respectively, at 
an unknown date, possibly in pre- 
conquest times but more likely on 
one of the Manila-Acapulco galleons 
in the 17th century. 

Mateos Higuera, Salvador 

1948a Coleccion de estudios sumarios de 
los codices pictoricos indigenas: 
Codice de Arantza. Tlalocan, 2: 

First in a series describing the back- 
ground and content of native Mexi- 
can painted codices. 

1948b La pictografia tarasca. In El Occi- 
dente de Mexico, pp. 160-74. 

Detailed description and contents of 
seven codices and early documents 
treating of the Tarascans. 

1949a Codice Valeriano. Mex. Antig., 7: 

Postconquest (1574) Nahuatl codex 

1949b Coleccion de estudios sumarios de 
los codices pictoricos indigenas. 
Tlalocan, 3:22-28. 

Descriptive catalog and summarized 
contents of three Nahuatl postcon- 
quest and genealogical manuscripts. 

Mayer-Oakes, Nita 

1954 Archeologia [sic] mexicana. Car- 
negie Mag., 28:149-52, 156. 

In English. Popular account of exca- 
vations at El Risco in search of 
cord-marked pottery. 

-, 1952. 

Mayer-Oakes, W. J. 
See Swanger, J. L., and 

Maza, Francisco de la 

1951 El Tlalocan pagano de Teotihua- 
can y el Tlalocan cristiano de To- 
nanzintla. In Homenaje Caso, pp. 

Sees in 18th-century church art of 
Tonanzintla the same native con- 
cepts of Tlalocan and paradise as 
depicted in the Teotihuacan murals. 

Meade, Joaquin 

1948a Arqueologia de san Luis Potosi. 
Soc. Mex. Geog. y Estad. 

Very useful indexed guide to 172 
sites, with brief notes on their loca- 
tion, but containing a minimum of 
description. Plans of several in- 
dividual ruins are sketched. Pro- 
logue presents Meade's theories on 
prehistoric population movements in 
this important region. 

1948b Iziz centli (el maiz). Origenes y 
mitologia. Ilustraciones de codices 
y monumentos. Prologo de En- 
rique Juan Palacios. Mexico, Ta- 
lleres Graficos de la Nacion. 

Assembles numerous references to 
the maize plant and depictions 
thereof, from native codices, sculp- 
ture, and early Spanish accounts. 
One chapter treats of the possible 
origin of maize in the Huasteca. 

Medellin Zenil, Alfonso 

1952 Exploraciones en Quauhtochco. 
Jalapa, Mexico, Gobierno del Es- 
tado de Veracruz, Depto. Antr. 

Account of the first season's excava- 
tions. The "teocali," a typical late 
structure, has a small percentage of 
early pre-Classic potshords in its 
fill; the author makes what seems to 
me the unwarranted assumption that 
its construction began in that early 

1955a Desarrollo de la cultura prehis- 
panica central veracruzana. A. 
Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 7:101-10. 

Brief notes on archaeological re- 
mains at eight sites or zones in Vera- 
cruz. Many illustrations, including 
the unusual Quiahuiztlan tombs. 



1955b Exploraciones en la Isla de Sacri- 
ficios. Informe. Jalapa, Mexico, 
Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz, 
Dept. Antr. 

Brief description of the ceramic 
types, profusely illustrated with 
color plates and inferior halftones. 

1957 La deidad Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, 
en el centro de Veracruz. Pal. 
Horn., 2:45-49. 

Early specimens of this god indi- 
cate his worship in pre-Classic 
(Formative) times and suggest to 
the author a coastal origin of the 


AND Frederick A. Peterson 

1954 Smiling-head complex from cen- 
tral Vera Cruz, Mexico. Am. An- 
tiq., 20:162-69. 

Discovery of about 1200 new exam- 
ples of "smiling heads" enables the 
authors to make a thorough descrip- 
tive analysis of this strange prehis- 
toric complex. 

Medioni, Gilbert 

1950 Art maj'a du Mexique et du Guate- 
mala. Ancien Empire. Paris, Edi- 
tions de la Cyme. 

Numerous and mostly excellent 
photographic reproductions, chiefly 
of Maya sculpture: the eight-page 
introduction is badly out of date, 
based on the Old Empire-New Em- 
pire concept, the teocentli origin 
of corn agriculture, and the Popol 
Vuh version of ethnic origins. Ap- 
pendices summarize various aspects 
of Maya culture, following Morley. 

1952 L'art tarasque du Mexique occi- 
dental. Paris, Paul Hartmann. 

Excellent photographs of the famous 
Tarascan effigies. 

Meighan, C. W., AND J. A. Bennyhoff 

1951 A shell snake effig^' from British 
Honduras. Am. Antiq., 16:352-53. 

The style of this artifact is not 
typical of Maya snake representa- 

Melendez, Carlos 

1957 Una posible representacion de 
Huracan. Tlatoani, 2:38-42. 

Similarities of some Guapiles, Po- 
coci, Limon (Costa Rica) specimens 
with Cuban representations of 

Melgarejo VrvANCo, Jose Luis 

1948 Semejanzas culturales entre el oc- 
cidente de Mexico y la costa del 
Golfo. In El Occidente de Mexico, 
p. 136. 

Archaeological and ethnographic 
trait similarities. 

1949 Historia de Veracruz. Epoca pre- 
hispanica. Vol. 1. Jalapa-Enriquez, 
Mexico, Talleres Graficos del Go- 
bierno de Veracruz. 

Profusely illustrated book assemb- 
ling largely documentary history of 
various Indian groups and data on 
subject categories (agriculture, 
houses, food, clothing, etc.) gleaned 
from archaeological, historical, and 
modern ethnological sources. Ex- 
cellent color plates; poor halftones. 

Me:morial de Solola 

1950 Memorial de Solola. Anales de los 
Cakchiqueles. Traduccion directa 
del original, introduccion y notas 
de Adrian Recinos. — Titulo de los 
Seiiores de Totonicapan. Traduc- 
cion del original Quiche por el P. 
Dionisio Jose Chonay; introduc- 
cion y notas de Adrian Recinos. 
Mexico. Fondo de Cultura Econo- 
mica (Biblioteca Americana, Serie 
de Literatura Indigena) . 

Excellent translations of two famous 
Guatemala highland Indian records, 
one by the distinguished scholar and 
diplomat Adrian Recinos, admired 
for his earlier Popol Vuh; the other 
by Dionisio Jose Chonay. 

Mengin, Ernest 

1952 Commentaire du Codex Mexi- 
canus nos. 23-24 de la Bibliotheque 
Nationale de Paris. J. Soc. Am., 
n.s., 41:387-498. 

Analysis and commentary of a 1571 
codex containing calendar and as- 
trology, history of the Mexica from 
their departure from Aztlan until 
1571, including wanderings and the 
succession of kings. Illustrated, with 
a full bibliography and index. 

Merrill, Robert H. 

1949 The Maya eclipse table of the 
Dresden Codex: a reply. Am. 
Antiq., 14:228-30. 

Reaffirms his proposition that the 
Dresden groups of three sequent 
tzolkin days were "dark moon" days, 
which located the limits within 
which solar eclipses were to be fear- 
ed, and possibly actually served as 
designations of names of this period. 



Miles, S. W. 

1957a Maya settlement patterns: a prob- 
lem for ethnology and archae- 
ology. SW. J. Anth., 13:239-48. 
Compare Maya lowland archaeologi- 
cal evidence with highland Pokom 
town patterns of 16th century. 

1957b The sixteenth-century Pokom- 
Maya: a documentary analysis of 
social structure and archaeological 
setting. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, 47: 

Another interesting linking of con- 
tact-period documentary evidence 
with archaeological data. An ex- 
haustive study of almost all aspects 
of Pokom and related cultures. 

MiLLiKEN, William M. 

1948 Transformation of a museum: pre- 
Columbian art in a new setting. 
Mag. Art, 41:43-48. 

Incidental to describing the new 
exhibits of the remodeled National 
Museum in Mexico City, this article 
provides the Fine Arts student with 
a brief culture background of the 
subjects discussed. Contains excel- 
lent photographs of 10 stone sculp- 
tures and a gold mask. 

1955 Two pre-Columbian sculptures. B. 
Cleveland Mus. Art, 42:59-61. 
Description of Olmec-style jades. 

Millon, Rene F. 

1954 Irrigation at Teotihuacan. Am. 
Antiq., 20:176-80. 

Results of an investigation having 
an important bearing on basic mat- 
ters of ancient Middle American 
culture. Concludes that irrigation is 
necessary for maize cultivation in 
the valley of Teotihuacan today, and 
that it was probably necessary in 
ancient times there and elsewhere 
in Middle America. 

1957a Irrigation systems in the valley of 
Teotihuacan. Am. Antiq., 23:160- 

Results of excavation in the aban- 
doned Maravilla irrigation system. 
The original diversion of the stream 
possibly occurred in early post- 
Teotihuacan times, no later than 
the Tula period. Earlier systems in 
the south are implied. 

1957b New data on Teotihuacan I in 
Teotihuacan. B. Cent. Inv. Antr. 
Mex., 4: 12-18. 

Concentrations of Teotihuacan I pot- 
tery and presumably Teotihuacan I 
structures in the Ostoyohualco area 
near the Pyramid of the Moon. Also 
an account of La Silla del Diablo, a 
Teotihuacan Florescent period site, 
and Cerro Tezoyuca el Grande, a 
proto-Teotihuacan I site. 

Moedano Koer, Hugo 

1948 Breve noticia sobre la zona de 
Oztotitlan, Guerrero. In El Occi- 
dente de Mexico, pp. 105-06. 

Corbel-vaulted tomb and Maya-like 
sculpture in the northern Rio Balsas 

1957 Informe preliminar sobre las ex- 
ploraciones arqueologicas de San 
Luis Tlatilco. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 9:73-84. 

Drawings of pottery, figurines, and 
a burial, published posthumously, 
with notes by Roman Pina Chan. 

Molins Fabrega, N. 

1954-55 El codice mendocino y la eco- 
nomia de Tenochtitlan. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 14:303-35. 

Analysis of tribute records, for ex- 
ample the relation between raw 
cotton and woven goods, suggests 
that Tenochtitlan was more a com- 
mercial than an industrial center. 
(Reprinted in 1956 by Libro-Mex., 
Biblioteca Minima Mexicana, no. 

Monzon, Arturo 

1949 El calpulli en la organizacion so- 
cial de los tenochca. U. Nac. Auto- 
noma de Mex. (Inst. Hist., no. 14). 

Reconstruction of the Tenochca 
system of bilateral, endogamous, 
stratified clans in preconquest 

Morales Patino, Oswaldo 

1947-48 Los mayas de Honduras y los 
indigenas antillanos precolombi- 
nos. Tzunpame, afio 7, no. 6-7, pp. 

Reviews archaeological, historical, 
linguistic and ethnological evidence 
and concludes that no important 
contacts existed between the main- 
land Maya and the Antilles. 

Moreno, E. Pareyon 

See Pina Chan, Roman, A. Romano Pa- 
checo, and — , 1952. 

Morgan, Lewis Henry 

1950 Montezuma's dinner: an essay on 
the tribal society of the North 
American Indians. New York, 
Labor News Co. 

New edition of Morgan's well- 
known attack on the validity of 
concepts of "royalty" and "empire" 
applied to the social organization of 
the Indians, particularly the Aztecs. 




1948a Check list of the Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum Mayarum and check list 
of all known Initial and Supple- 
mentary Series. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Dept. Archaeol., mimeo- 

One of the most useful references 
ever published for the epigrapher. 

1948b The greatest murals of ancient 
America at Bonampak, Chiapas, 
Mexico. Palacio, 55:99-102. 

Description of this famous discov- 
ery. Illustrated. 

See Barrera Vasquez, Alfredo, and , 

1949; Maler, Teobert, and , 



1950 Morleyana: a collection of writ- 
ings in memoriam Sylvanus Gris- 
wold Morley, 1883-1948. Santa Fe, 
School Am. Research and Mus. 
New Mexico. 

Collection of informally written 
anecdotes, bibliography, and other 
records from the unusually rich life 
of this famous authority on the 
Maya. Included is Morley's own re- 
port on the Guatemala-British 
Honduras border skirmishing in 
1916, in which Dr. Lafleur and the 
guide of a Morley-Carpenter ex- 
pedition were killed. 

MoRss, Noel 

1952 Cradled infant figurines from 
Tennessee and Mexico. Am. Antiq., 

Similarities between Mexican and 
Tennessee occurrences of a figurine 
type, with discussion of the impli- 

MtJLLER, E. F. Jacobs 
See Jacobs-Miiller, E. F. 


1951 Restos arqueologicos en el noreste 
de Oaxaca. 17. Mexico, 5:19-20. 

Account of archaeological reconnais- 
sance, including a map showing 
location of sites. 


Navarrete, Carlos 

1957 El material arqueologico de la 
Cueva de Calucan. Tlatoani, 2: 14- 

Ceremonial cave possibly related to 
the Tlaloc cult, yielding post-Classic 

Nicholson, H. B. 

1953 On a supposed Mesoamerican 
"thin orange" vessel from Ecua- 
dor. Am. Antiq., 19:164-66. 

Evidence against Jacinto Jijon y 
Caamano's identification of a South 
American specimen as of Meso- 
american origin. 

1954 The birth of the Smoking Mirror. 
Archaeology, 7:164-70. 

Description and analysis of scenes 
and symbols on an ancient Mexican 
monument, and the religious myth- 
ology they depict. 

1955a Montezuma's zoo. Pac. Discov., 8: 

Assembles from eyewitness and 
other early accounts all data on the 
zoo and aviary of Tenochtitlan. 
Nuremberg map of the city and 
pictures of animals and birds from 
the codices. 

1955b Native historical traditions of nu- 
clear America and the problem 
of their archaeological correlation. 
Am. Anthr., 57:594-613. 

Excellent appraisal of methodology 
involved in attempts to link archae- 
ology to native sources of myth and 

1955c The temalacatl of Tehuacan. Mex. 
Antig., 8:95-134. 

A careful study of the symbolism 
carved on a monument from Puebla, 
possibly a gladiatorial stone or a 
ball game ring. 

Noguera, Eduardo 

1948 Estado actual de los conocimien- 
tos acerca de la arqueologia del 
noroeste de Michoacan. In El Oc- 
cidente de Mexico, pp. 38-39. 

Proposes a sequence of northwest 
Michoacan cultural remains from 
Formative (Zacatenco I) time 
through Aztec IV: El Opeiio, Curu- 
taran, Chupicuaro, Jiquilpan, Za- 
capu-Los Gatos, and Tzintzuntzan. 

1948-49 Nuevos rasgos caracteristicos 
encontrados en Xochicalco. R. 
Mex. Estud. Antr., 10:115-19. 

Author sees closer analogies with 
southern and Maya sites than with 
central Mexico. 



1950 El horizonte tolteca-chichimeca. 
Mexico, Ediciones Mexicanas. En- 
ciclopedia Mexicana de Arte, no. 4. 

Cultural manifestations in Cholula, 
Tizatlan, Tula, Tenayuca, Calixtla- 
huaca, Totonacapan, Yucatan, Mix- 
teca Puebla, and northwestern Mex- 
ico are briefly summarized. Well 
illustrated, sometimes in color. 

1951a Exploraciones en Xochicalco. In 
Tax, 1951, pp. 37-42. 

Xochicalco was not in close touch 
with central Mexico until relatively 
late prehistoric times, but rather 
received cultural stimulation from 
the Maya area and southern Mex- 

1951b Veinticinco anos de arqueologia 
en Mexico. In Homenaje Caso, pp. 

Progress of archaeological research 

in Mexico since 1925. 

1954a La ceramica de Cholula. Mexico, 
Guarania (Biblioteca de historia 
y arqueologia americanas) . 

Pottery of Cholula, from Formative 
to protohistoric times, as established 
through stratigraphic studies and 
comparative research. Profusely 
illustrated, many figures in color. 

1954b Un nuevo tipo de figurillas hu- 
manas. Yan, 3:36-45. 

Identifies and discusses the pro- 
venience of a particular type of 
effigy vessel. 

1955 Extraordinario hallazgo en Teoti- 
huacan. Mex. Antig., 8:43-56. 

Remarkable slab tripod cylinder 
vase decorated with onyx discs em- 
bedded in the core clay prior to fir- 
ing, a technique known heretofore 
only in Ecuador. Teotihuacan III 

1956 Un edificio preclasico en Cholula. 
In Estud. Antr., pp. 213-24. 

A Late Formative structure and its 
associated pottery and figurines. 

, AND Juan Leonard 

1957 Descubrimiento de la Casa de las 
Aguilas en Teotihuacan. B. Cent. 
Inv. Antr. Mex., 4:6-9. 

Four eagles realistically depicted in 
mural on a Teotihuacan I structure. 

NoGUERA, Manuel G. 

1954 Mitologia, cultura y medicina en 
el Mexico precortesiano. Prologo 
de Jose F. Rulfo. Mexico, Imer. 
Archaeological backgrounds some- 
what debatable, but the examples 
and specimens themselves are use- 

Noriega, Raul 

1954 Tres estudios sobre la Piedra del 
Sol. Los signos del Nahui Olin. 
Funcion astronomica del calen- 
dario de 260 dias. La nran flecha 
de Tonatiuh. Mexico. 

The Piedra del Sol inscriptions re- 
late to planetary observations; the 
260-day calendar has an astronomi- 
cal function; the large arrow motif 
has an astronomical value denoted 
in its infix. 

1954-55 Claves matematico-astronomi- 
cas del sistema calendarico de los 
antiguos mexicanos y demostra- 
cion de la funcion astronomica 
del calendario de 260 dias. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 14:269-80. 

Problems of relating cycles of ter- 
restrial rotation around the sun to 
"weeks" and other planetary per- 

1955? La piedra del sol y 16 monumen- 
tos astronomicos del Mexico an- 
tiguo: simbolos y claves. Mexico, 

Profusely illustrated transcription 
and interpretation of various pre- 
historic Mexican calendrical in- 

1956a Homogeneidad del sistema calen- 
darico del Mexico antiguo con el 
computo de ocurrencias de eclips- 
es. B. Cent. Inv. Antr. Mex., 1:11- 

Synchronizes the Mexican calendric 
system with recurrences of solar 
eclipses and lunations. 

1956b Registro de eclipses de sol en dos 
monumentos del Mexico antiguo. 
B. Cent. Inv. Antr. Mex., 1-4. 

Defines the recurrence of eclipses in 
periods of religious significance and 
suggests that the Mexican calendar 
was synchronized with these. Large 
folding charts and figures. 

1957 Eclipses y cronologia maya-mexi- 
cana. Supp. to R. "El Universo." 

Deciphers inscriptions designating 
various eclipse cycles, lunar and 
planetary years, and interprets as- 
tronomical passages from Aztec 
sculpture, Dresden Codex, and other 



NowoTNY, Karl Anton 

1948 Erlauterungen zum Codex Vindo- 
bonensis, Vorderseite. Archiv fiir 
Volkerkunde, 3:156-200. 

Commentary on a Mexican codex 
containing genealogies, place name 
and year glyphs, and rituals. 

1949 A unique wooden figure from an- 
cient Mexico. Am. Antiq., 15:57-61. 

Unique specimen in the Vienna 
Ethnographic Museum, tentatively 
identified as representing Xolotl; has 
gold and silver nails and inlays 
fastened with wooden pegs. 3 

1951 Die Konkordanz der mesoameri- 
kanischen Chronologie. Zeit. Ethn., 

Dates in the Mexican codices with 
their Julian equivalents, and a dis- 
cussion of the Venus tables in the 
Dresden Codex. 

1956 Restauracion de las partes destrui- 
das en el Codice Vindobonensis. 
B. Cent. Inv. Antr. Mex., 1:1-9. 

Importance of filling in the damaged 
portions of this important manu- 

See Burland, C. A., and , 1950. 


Obregon de la Parra, Jorge 

1948 Estudio analitico de la arquitec- 
tura funeraria en Monte Alban, 
Oaxaca. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 

Useful synthesis of Monte Alban 
tomb features by chronological 

El Occidente de Mexico 

1948 El Occidente de Mexico. Cuarta 
Reunion de Mesa Redonda sobre 
Problemas Antropologicos de 
Mexico y Centre America, cele- 
brada en el Museo Nacional de 
Historia del 23 a 28 de septiembre 
de 1946. Soc. Mex. Antr. 

Section II consists of 18 papers and 
sections of discussion on the archae- 
ology of Michoacan and the central 
zone of Mexico, northwest Mexico, 
and Guerrero. Section III contains 9 
papers treating of ancient ethnog- 
raphy and early documentary 
native history. Separate reviews are 
included in this bibliography. 

Olderogge, D. a. 

1955 The Maya hieroglyphic writing 
and its deciphering. VOKS B., 6: 

Brief and somewhat inaccurate re- 
view of the history of Mayan 
epigraphic research, with a defense 
and explanation of the Knorozov 
method of deciphering the glyphs, 
which, the author states, was made 
possible by a "knowledge of the 
basic laws governing the develop- 
ment of society," as "adhered to by 
Soviet scientists." 

Olive N., Julio Cesar, and Beatriz 
Barba a. 

1957 Sobre la desintegracion de las cul- 
turas clasicas. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 9:57-71. 

Reviews briefly various possible 
contributing factors: national de- 
cadence, climatic changes, soil ex- 
haustion, earthquakes and volcanic 
eruptions, religious and superstitious 
causes, wars, insurrections, revolu- 
tions. The authors favor a social up- 
rising, overthrowing the power of 
the theocracy as the type of ex- 
planation that best fits all the facts. 

Olivera Sedano, Alicia 

1954-55 Cuitlahuac. R. 
Antr., 14:299-302. 

Mex. Estud. 

Concise outline of events, dates, 
and rulers, taken from native 

O'Neale, Lila M. 

1948 Textiles of pre-Columbian Chi- 
huahua. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Pub. 574, Contrib. 45. 

Technical analysis of 35 Apocynum 
yarn weavings from a Basket Maker 
cave of the Sierra Madre. Appendix: 
Chemical notes on the coloring mat- 
ter of Chihuahua textiles of pre- 
Columbian Mexico, by Michael Ka- 
sha. 30 figures. 

Orellana Tapia, Rafael 

1952a La reina de Uxmal. Tlatoani, 1: 

Suggests that this sculptured head 
represents Venus and that the 
hieroglyph and number inscribed on 
it record eight solar years which 
equal five Venus years. Spinden's 
photograph of the sculpture in situ 
is reproduced. 



1952b Zona arqueologica de Izapa. Tla- 
toani, 1:17-25. 

Description and illustrations of 
stelae, altars, and monuments, with 
notes and discussion of artifacts. 

1953a La cabecita del mangal, Veracruz. 
Yan, 2:140-41. 

Splendid example of late Formative 
period art, a modeled clay head 
from Veracruz. 

1953b Petroglifos y pinturas rupestres 
de Sonora. Yan, 1:29-33. 

Human, animal, geometric, and ab- 
stract symbols. Illustrated. 

1954 El vaso de Ixtapa, Chiapas. Yan, 

A tomb offering, decorated in cham- 
pleve and representing an historical 
or religious scene. 

1955 Nueva lapida olmecoide de Izapa, 
Chiapas, Estela 21. Mex. Antig., 
8: 157-68. 

Decapitation scene and a personage 
carried in a litter; blood is repre- 
sented symbolically, in a style some- 
what similar to Toltec ball-player 
beheadings at Chichen Itza and at 
Aparacio, Veracruz. 

Orozco y Berra, Manuel 

1954 Historia antigua y de las culturas 
aborigenes de Mexico. Mexico, 
Ediciones Fuente Cultural. 2 vols. 

Profusely illustrated with often in- 
ferior engravings, but with fairly 
up-to-date introductory sections by 
Mexican scholars such as Wigberto 
Jimenez Moreno, Pablo Martinez 
del Rio, and E. Nunez Mata. 

Ortega y Medina, Juan A. 

1953 Monroismo arqueologico: un in- 
tento de compensacion de ameri- 
canidad insuficiente. Cuad. Am., 
71:168-89; 72:158-87. 

The first part is devoted largely to a 
comparative study of the ideas, 
writings, and sources of John Lloyd 
Stephens and Benjamin N. Norman. 
The second part interprets Stephens' 
attitudes as a reflection of general 
North American Monroism. 

Osborne, Lilly de Jongh 

1952 Datos sobre la indumentaria pre- 
colombina. A. Soc. Geog. Hist. 
Guat., 26:58-63. 

Costumes depicted in Maya art of 
the Classic period (Tzakol and 
Tepeu). Author sees survival in 
modern times. 

Outwater, J. Ogden, Jr. 

1957a The pre-Columbian stonecutting 
techniques of the Mexican plateau. 
Am. Antiq., 22:258-64. 

Attempt to estimate the man years 
required to build various monu- 
ments, in order to test hypothesis 
concerning techniques of construc- 

1957b Pre-Columbian woodcutting tech- 
niques. Am. Antiq., 22:411-12. 

Very plausible demonstration of an 
obsidian-tooth saw that the ancient 
Mesoamericans would have used for 
the large amount of woodcutting 
they are presumed to have had to do. 

Pacheco, a. Romano 

See Pina Chan, Roman, . and E. Pa- 

reyon Moreno, 1952. 

Paddock, John (ed.) 

1953 Excavations in the Mixteca Alta: 
source materials published by the 
faculty and students of the An- 
thropology Department, Mexico 
City College. Mesoamer. Notes, 
no. 3. 

Report on a field trip to the sites 
of Yatachio and Pueblo Viejo in 
northern Oaxaca. Includes map, 
chronological chart, and illustra- 

Palacios, Enrique Juan 

1948a La estimacion del aiio natural en 
Xochicalco, acorde con la ciencia. 
Acts Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 461-66. 

Inscriptions at Xochicalco indicate 
that knowledge of the length of the 
solar year here was very accurate. 
Dates Xochicalco to A.D. 1000. 

1948b El ultimo estudio del calendario 
maya-mexicano de Rafael Girard. 
A. Soc. Geog. Hist. Guat, 23: 17-28. 

Lengthy review of Girard, 1948c, 
and its implications regarding the 
native calendar system and the 
Maya-European correlation problem. 



Palerm, Angel 

1954 La secuencia de la evolucion cul- 
tural de Mesoamerica. B. Bih. 
Antr. Am., 17:205-33. 

Comparative study of three recent 
summaries of Middle American pre- 
history by Pedro Armillas, Alfonso 
Caso, and Ignacio Bernal, with the 
author's own suggestions. Broad 
trends of culture in each major per- 
iod are reviewed. 

1955 The agricultural bases of urban 
civilization in Mesoamerica. In 
Irrigation civilizations: a compara- 
tive study. Pan Am. Union, Soc. 
Sci. Monogr., pp. 28-42. 

Classification of Middle American 
agricultural systems relative to 
population density and settlement 
pattern, the characteristics of pre- 
historic irrigation there, and its im- 
portance. A useful assemblage of 
data on canals and aqueducts, with 
interesting speculations regarding 
their extent and significance. 

1956 Notas sobre las construcciones 
militares y la guerra en Meso- 
america. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 
8: 123-34. 

Re-examines the old hypothesis that 
the Formative and Classic periods 
of Middle America were essentially 
peaceful, and finds evidence in 
early historical sources such as 
Duran, Torquem.ada, and Cortes 
that certain city features usually 
considered nonmilitary were prob- 
ably fortifications and other de- 
fense devices. 

— , AND Eric R. Wolf 

1954-55 El desarrollo del area clave del 
imperio texcocano. R. Mex. Estud. 
Antr., 14:337-49. 

Interesting suggestions regarding 
the economic and political relation- 
ships of the Chichimecs and pre- 
ceding "Toltec" populations in 
Acolhuacan, and the subsequent 
transformation of this area from a 
marginal zone of secondary import- 
ance to a key region of the Texcoco 

agricultural, regional differentiation, 
intensified agricultural techniques, 
Florescent Classic, and crisis or re- 

See Armillas, Pedro, 

and Eric R. 

1957 Ecological potential and cultural 
development in Mesoamerica. In 
Studies in Human Ecology. Pan 
Am. Union, Soc. Sci. Monogr. 3, 
pp. 1-37. 

Relationships between habitat and 
"the cultural equipment at the roots 
of Meso a m e r i c a n development." 
Authors recognize five stages of 
culture-ecological succession: basic 

Wolf, 1956; Wolf, Eric R., and , 


Palm, Erwin Walter 

1951 Tenochtitlan y la cuidad ideal de 

Durer. J. Soc. Am., n.s., 40:59-66. 

Evidence that the plan of the Aztec 

capital influenced 16th-century 

European notions of the "ideal city." 

Paz, J. RuFiNO 

1950 La gruta de Corinto. A. Mus. Nac, 

Brief notes on surface remains in the 
Department of Morazan, El Salva- 

Peret, Benjamin 

1955 Nos tragos dos grandes Itzas. An- 
hemhi, 20:226-42. 

The author has translated the Chi- 
1am Balam of Chumayel from Span- 
ish to French (see Chilam Balam de 
Chumayel, 1955). This book tells of 
that document and the ruins of 
Chichen Itza. 

Perez Elias, Antonio 

1956 Las cuevas del valle de Mexico. 
Tlatoani, 10:34-38. 

Ethnohistorical significance of the 
caves in this vicinity as described 
in early sources. 

Perez Martinez, Hector, Eulalia Guzman, 
and others 

1951 La supervivencia de Cuauhtemoc. 
Hallazgo de los restos del heroe. 
Mexico, Ediciones Criminalia. 

Collection of articles reviewing the 
circumstances and materials of the 
Ixcateopan discovery, published as 
"un homenaje civico" to Cuauh- 
temoc, but largely devoted to sup- 
porting the authenticity of the re- 
mains. See Davalcs Hurtado and 
Romero, 1950. 

Peso, Charles C. di 

1953 The clay figurines of Acambaro, 
Guanaiuato, Mexico. Am. Antiq., 

Exposure of an archaeological hoax 
in Mexico. 



Peterson, Frederick A. 

1952a Falsificaciones arqueologicas en el 
estado de Guerrero, Mexico. Tla- 
toani, 1:15-19. 

Excellent illustrations and descrip- 
tion of some of the thousands of fake 
stone masks, figurines, and other 
sculpture sold annually in Tasco, 
Iguala, and Teloloapan. 

1952b Falsifications from Guerrero. 
Ethnos, 17:113-18. 

Warning to collectors that very ex- 
pert fakes of stone masks and other 
figures are being manufactured in 
Guerrero. Photographs of 11 speci- 

1952c Tlaloc en soportes de vasijas teoti- 
huacanas. Tlatoani, 1:13. 

A Tlaloc slab foot from Coyuca de 
Benitez shows more realistic repre- 
sentation of the god, whose features 
on these supports are usually highly 

1953a Faces that are really false. Nat. 
Hist., 62: 176-80. 

Well-illustrated expose of the most 
recent faked archaeological relics 
manufactured in Mexico. 

1953b Falsificaciones de Chupicuaro. 
Yan, 2:150-56. 

Another of this author's useful 
articles on fakes. Well illustrated 

1954a Smiling heads from Vera Cruz. 
Ethnos, 19:80-93. 

Description and interpretation of the 
smiling heads, and a complex of 
associated objects and traits. Well 
illustrated, this is an imaginative 
and informative study. 

1954b Women warriors and laughing 
faces. Nat. Hist., 63:210-15, 239. 

Famous smiling heads, their pro- 
venience and chronological position 
in prehistoric Mexico, with superb 
photographs of some of the finest 

1955a "Doughnut-shaped" vessels and 
bird bowls of Chupicuaro, Mexico. 
Ethnos, 20:137-45. 

Provenience of two striking ceramic 
forms, one rare, the other interesting 
because of its conventionalized vari- 

1955b Preliminary report: archaeology 
(ClAM expedition, 1955). Cent. 
Inv. Antr. Mex. 

Preliminary report on expedition to 
the Lacandone Forest. 

1956a Anthropomorphic effigy vessels 
from Chupicuaro, Mexico. Ethnos, 

Classification, description, and gen- 
eral considerations. 

1956b A probable identification of the 
Sola god. Ethnos, 21:143-46. 

God typical of the Sola region, 
Oaxaca, found on clay plaque in 
central Veracruz associated with 
Late Classic materials, is the same 
deity as the feathered serpent of 
later periods. 

-. 1957; 

See Franco C, Jose Luis, and 

Medellin Zenil, Alfonso and 

PiNA Chan, Roman 

1949-50 Tlatilco y la cultura preclasica 
del Valle de Mexico. A. Inst. Nac. 
Antr. Hist., 4:33-43. 

The strata "Atoto Reciente" and 
"Atoto de Transicion" correspond to 
Late Tlatilco and Transition, respec- 
tively, and are closely related to 
Middle Upper Zacatenco and Arbo- 
lillo II. 

1950 Estratigrafia en los terrenos adya- 
centes a la catedral metropolitana. 
Mem. Acad. Mex. Hist., 9: 199-224. 

Stratigraphy of Mixteca-Puebla 
wares at Tlatelolco. Also printed in 
Tlatelolco .... X. 

1953 Una figurilla de Tlatilco. Yan, 2: 

Sees in this unusual seated figure 
a reflection of the changing Forma- 
tive period society. 

1954 Hallazgos arqueologicos en tierras 
de Oaxaca. Tlatoani, 8-9:31-33. 

Large photographs and a brief de- 
scription of sculptures at Tututepec 
and Rio Grande. 

1955 Las culturas preclasicas de la cu- 
enca de Mexico. Mexico, Fondo 
de Cultura Economica. 

Useful synthesis of Formative period 
life in Mexico, inferred from archi- 
tecture, figurines, and other arti- 
facts. Many drawings and halftones. 

— , AND Valentin Lopez G. 

1952 Excavaciones en Atlihuayan More- 
los. Tlatoani, 1: 12. 

Describes pottery of two occupa- 
tions: the "Archaic-Olmec," which 
the authors believe spread from 
south to north in Morelos, and was 
contemporaneous with Tlatilco 
Transitional in the Valley of Mexico, 
and a later Gualupita I-II "com- 
plex," including "baby face" figures. 



— , A. Romano Pacheco, and E. Pareyon 

1952 Tlatilco, nuevo sitio preclasico del 
Valle de Mexico. Tlatoani, 1:9-14. 

Description and illustrations of the 
amazing Formative period figurines 
and pottery from the Tlatilco ceme- 

See Estrada Balmori, Elma, and 

-, and Hein- 


1948 Architectural survey of Yucatan. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year Book 
47, pp. 218-19. 

Preliminary account of studies at 
Uxmal and neighboring sites, Maya- 
pan, and Campeche. 

1951-57 Annual report of the director 
of the Department of Archaeology. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash.. Year Books 

Broad plans, methodology, and cur- 
rent activities of the Institution's 
new archaeological program in 

1954 The northern terminus of the prin- 
cipal sacbe at Mayapan. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 15. 

The ancient Maya road was one of 
the latest constructions at Mayapan. 

1956 The southern terminus of the prin- 
cipal sacbe at Mayapan: Group Z- 
50. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 37. 

A late road constructed southward 
from a group of domiciliary struc- 
tures to a partly ceremonial group. 
Interesting inferences and specula- 
tions regarding its history and pur- 
pose. Well illustrated. 

, and Clayton E. Ray 

1957 Notes on vertebrate animal re- 
mains from Mayapan. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 41. 

The most plentiful were deer, dog, 
turkey, iguana, peccary, rabbit, sea 
drum, sea cat, and cichlid. 


1953 Chacchob, Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Rept. 6. 

An interesting walled city, first re- 
ported in 1845 but only now investi- 
gated by competent archaeologists. 
Evidences of a Puuc period occupa- 

See Stromsvik, Gustav, 
rich Berlin, 1955. 

PoMPA y Pompa, Antonio 

1956 La escritura petroglifica rupestre 
y su expresion en el noroeste 
mexicano. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 8:213-25. 

Believes the petroglyphs are im- 
portant as forefunners of prehispanic 
writing (his use of the term "proto- 
historia" may confuse the reader). 
A useful atlas of petroglyphs is 

PoNCE de Elizundia, Noemi 

1951 Estudio e importancia literaria de 
las leyendas mayas. Mexico. 

Brief analysis of the content, style, 
and importance of Maya legends, 
including materials from the Popol 
Vuh and the Books of Chilam Ba- 
lam. Thesis, University o£ Mexico. 

PopoL Vuh 

1949 Interpretacion literaria de Ermilo 
Abreu Gomez. Interpretacion 
plastica de Jose Garcia Narezo. 
Mexico, Editorial Leyenda. 

Abridged Spanish version, in no 
sense a translation, of the famous 
Quiche story, with imaginative illus- 
trations in color. The editor's an- 
nounced intention: "exaltar la 
esencia poetica que guarda tan 
maravilloso libro." 

1950 The sacred book of the ancient 
Quiche Maya. English version by 
Delia Goetz and Sylvanus G. Mor- 
ley, from the Spanish translation 
by Adrian Recinos. Oklahoma 
Press (The Civilization of the 
American Indian). 

First English translation of this 
important native document, based 
on what is by far the best transla- 
tion to date, that of Recinos, whose 
introduction is exhaustive and 

Porter, Muriel N. 

1948a Pipas precortesianas. Acta Anthr., 

Distribution, chronology, and com- 
parative study of smoking pipes. 
Develops the hypothesis that pipes 
were introduced into Mexico from 
the United States between A.D. 900 
and 1100. The thesis leans heavily 
on southern U.S. and Mexican abso- 
lute dating that is still uncertain. 
28 plates, 5 tables, 3 maps. 



1948b Pottery found at Chupicuaro, 
Guanajuato. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 42-47. 

Sequence of Upper Lerma River 
ceramics, stressing the importance 
of red-on-buff pottery as a possible 
point of distribution for the Valley 
of Mexico, with relations north to 
Chihuahua and the Hohokam. 

1953 Tlatilco and the pre-Classic cul- 
tures of the New World. Viking 
Fund Pub. Anthr., no. 19. 

Comparative study of the significant 
traits from Tlatilco, the famous 
Formative period Mexican site. 
Some interesting relationships are 
suggested, but the study lacks broad 
integration of Mesoamerican For- 
mative cultures. 

1956 Excavations at Chupicuaro, Gua- 
najuato, Mexico. Trans. Am. 
Philos. Soc, n.s., 46:515-637. 

Late Formative and Early Classic 
remains, their temporal and geo- 
graphic distributions, and cultural 
relationships. 27 pages of photo- 
graphic reproductions. An important 
record of a still little-known 
archaeological zone. 

Proskouriakoff, Tatiana 

1950 A study of Classic Maya sculpture. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 593. 

Establishes style characteristics, 
based on epigraphy and comparative 
sculptural studies from all Classic 
Maya sites. An important mono- 
graph, revealing "a certain coher- 
ence of development, perhaps not 
entirely free of outside influences 
but surely selective of them. . . . 
This development has an inherently 
dramatic structure, in which the 
tendency to more complex organi- 
zation of the pattern is followed by 
the opposite trend of disintegration." 

1950-57 Annual report on art and arti- 
facts. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year 
Books 49-56. 

1951 Some non-Classic traits in the 
sculpture of Yucatan. In Tax, 1951, 
pp. 108-18. 

Recognizes, in addition to the Toltcc 
influences on Maya style, numerous 
foreign stylistic variants over sev- 

eral periods. Many of these show 
independent origins and indicate 
that before the Toltec period Yuca- 
tan was culturally less stable than 
the southern lowlands and probably 
subjected to more than one signifi- 
cant wave of migration. 

1952 The survival of the Maya tun 
count in colonial times. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 112. 

Transcription from a photographic 
facsimile of the Codex Perez and the 
Kaua manuscript. The tun counts in 
places are equated with dates agree- 
ing with the Goodman-Martinez- 
Thompson correlation. 

1954 Varieties of Classic central Vera- 
cruz sculpture. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 606, Contrib. 58. 

Another excellent study by the lead- 
ing analyst of Middle American art, 
it is of importance to the archae- 
ologist and the art theorist. Details 
of subject matter and of style are 
arranged in categories applicable to 
problems of ethnic relationships, 
chronology, and art history. 

1955 The death of a civilization. 
Am., 192:82-88. 


Results of Carnegie Institution of 
Washington's excavations at Maya- 
pan, Yucatan, and their bearing on 
Mayan cultural decay. 

, AND Charles R. Temple 

1955 A residential quadrangle: struc- 
tures R-85 to R-90. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Rept. 29. 

Excavations in an assemblage of 
structures at Mayapan, Yucatan. 

See Ruppert, Karl, J. Eric S. Thomp.son, 

and , 1955; Shook, Edwin M., 

and , 1951, 1956. 

PuiG, Pilar 

1955 Los mayas en su esplendor. Colec- 
cion de 29 dibujos originales del 
viejo imperio maya. Mexico, Four- 

The text on archaeological back- 
ground is outdated and the drawings 
are not outstanding. 




QuALi Amatl 

1950 Quali amatl. Chicome calli. Con- 
quista de Tlaltilolco. Anonimo na- 
huatl, traducido al castellano por 
Porfirio Aguirre. Mexico, Vargas 
Rea (Col. Amatlacuilotl) . 

Spanish and Nahuatl in parallel 
columns; glyphs are illustrated in 


Rainey, Froelich G. 

1950 The museum takes inventory. B. 
U. Mus., 15:18. 

Administrative report of University 
Museum activities, including the 
Middle American archaeological 
program and new discoveries at 
Cayo X, Caracol, and Benque Viejo, 
British Honduras. Illustrated. 

Ramirez, Felix C. 

1956a Ireti Khatape. Ensayo de una in- 
terpretacion de la Relacion de 
Michoacan. Personajes y dioses 
michoacanos. Mexico, Casa Ra- 

New translation and interpretation 
of certain passages. 

1956b Prehistoria de Michoacan. B. Acad. 
Nac. Hist. Geog., no. 2. 

Distinguishes between lay or domes- 
tic religion and the sacerdotal reli- 
gion. Believes proper names in an- 
cient documents were allegorical. 
Seeks racial, linguistic, and theo- 
logical unity in all prehistory. 

RamIrez, Ricardo 

1956 Paleontologia dominicana; de- 
scripcionde las f ormaciones geolo- 
gicas Baitoa, Cercado, Gurabo y 
Arcilla Mao, y lista de los molus- 
cos y corales fosiles procedentes 
de ellas, que entegran la coleccion 
preparada para ser exhibida en la 
Feria de la paz y confraternidad 

del mundo libre. Trujillo, Dom- 
inican Republic, Universidad. 
Publications, ser. 4, vol. 103, no. 2. 

Ramirez Flores, Jose 

1951 Mixcoatl. Xallixtlico, no. 5-6, pp. 

Presents strong evidence for identi- 
fying the so-called "Pelota player" 
figurines as, rather, representations 
of the god Mixcoatl. The pelota 
players' collar and bat thus become, 
instead, the cave mouth (with head 
emerging, symbolizing birth) and 
the magic club with which this god 
struck the earth and created its 
creatures. Illustrated are examples 
from Colima, Jalisco, and Nayarit. 

Rands, Robert L. 

1953 The water lily in Maya art: a com- 
plex of alleged Asiatic origin. Bu- 
reau Am. Ethn., B. 151, pp. 75-153. 

Detailed analysis of this important 
motif, its symbolic associations, and 
distribution. The water lily forms 
part of a complex with the Long- 
Nosed God and beings perhaps re- 
lated to the Serpent Bird. Notes 
close correspondences between the 
motif in Yucatan and the Usuma- 
cinta. "To explain the elaborated 
water lily as of Asiatic derivation, it 
would appear necessary to postulate 
a complex series of waves of funda- 
mental influence which accounted 
for new traits on various time 
levels." Suggests that the possible 
basic relationship between Old and 
New World theocracies, and the 
cursive tendencies in Maya and In- 
dian art, may explain the parallels 
in Maya and Hindu-Buddhist de- 

1954 Some manifestations of water in 
Mesoamerican art. Bureau Am. 
Ethn., B. 157, Anthr. Paper 48, pp. 

Valuable analysis of a series of in- 
terlocking complexes relating to 
falling water in Mesoamerican art, 
such as tears, the hand, the mouth, 
containers, urination and other 
physiological associations, the con- 
figurations of death, destruction, 
and misfortune, and associated 
deities. Contains detailed appen- 
dices, tables, and photographic illus- 



1957 Comparative notes on the hand- 
eye and related motifs. Am. Antiq., 

Reviews the details and art styles 
of these motifs in the southeast U. S., 
Middle America, and the Northwest 
Coast of North America and con- 
siders the possible problems of 
diffusion, independent invention, or 
common ancestry involved. lUus- 

— , AND Barbara C. Rands 

1957 The ceramic position of Palenque, 
Chiapas. Am. Antiq., 23:140-50. 
Illustrated summary of chronologi- 
cal changes in Palenque pottery 
(including great decrease in calcite 
temper) from early to late Classic 
times, and relationships with wares 
of other areas. 

Recinos, Adrian 

1948 El doctor Sylvanus G. Morley. A. 
Soc. Geog. Hist. Guat.. 23:239-40. 

Homage to Dr. Morley, who was a 
charter member of the Sociedad de 
Geografia e Historia de Guatemala, 
and a recipient of the Orden del 
Quetzal in 1939. 

1951 Contestacion al discurso del Li- 
cenciado Luis Antonio Diaz Vas- 
concelos. A. Soc. Geog. Hist. Guat., 

Comments and added bibliography 
of source material on prehistoric 
and protohistoric Maya legal sys- 
tems. See also Diaz Vasconcelos, 

1957 (ed.) Cronicas indigenas de Guate- 
mala. Guatemala, Editorial Uni- 
versitaria, no. 20. 

Valuable collection of short histories 
and titulos transcribed, translated, 
and edited with notes by the au- 
thority on native Guatemalan 
sources. They are less important 
than the Popol Vuh and the Cakchi- 
quel Memorial de Solold but are 
useful in confirming and in filling 
in gaps in those documents. 

Rendon, Silvia 

1947-48 La Cuarta Relacion de Don Do- 
mingo de San Anton Muiion Chi- 
malpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin. A. 
Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 3:199-218. 
Transcription and translation of an 
interesting 16th-century Nahuatl 
document, with a genealogical chart 
based on data therein. 

1948 Chicomoztoc. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 175-78. 

Evidence for identifying the present 
Cerrillo Vista Hermosa Totoltepec 
as the ceremonial center of Aztlan. 

1953 ^Fue el maiz originario de Amer- 
ica? Am. Indig., 13:223-30. 

Documentary evidence in favor of 
an Old World origin of maize. 

See Barrera Vasquez, Alfredo, and , 


Richards, Annette H. 

1953 The mystery of the first Mexican. 
Nat. Hist., 62:168-74. 

Well-illustrated account of the dis- 
covery of human artifacts associated 
with mammoth at Santa Isabel Izta- 

1955 The dancers of Monte Alban. Pac. 
Discov., 8:12-17. 

Assembles the many interpretations 
of Los Danzantes. 

Rio Lopez, Antonio 

1955 La historia maya 
mayas. Hist. Mex., 

escrita por 


Events in Mayan history and sug- 
gested dates, as outlined in the 

Books of Chilam Balam. 

See Rubin de la Borbolla. Daniel F. 
, 1953. 


RivAS Putnam, Ignacio 

1956 Temas americanos; la civilizacion 
maya; ensayo acerca de su pre- 
historia y cualidades. Bogota, An- 

Typical old-fashioned general text- 
book of Mayan culture, passable 
about 25 years ago but not today. 

Rivet, Paul 

1954 Cites maya. 2nd ed. Paris, Albert 

Guillot (Les hauts lieux de I'his- 

toire, no. 4). 

Superbly illustrated selection of 
Mayan objects of art. The new pic- 
tures of Palenque and the color re- 
productions of Bonampak are especi- 
ally good. Text is for the art student, 
not the anthropologist. 

Robertson, Donald 

1957 Art of the Aztec empire. U. Kan- 
sas Mus. Art. 

Illustrated catalog to museum ex- 
hibition. The introduction is an 
authoritative statement of the posi- 
tion of the Aztecs in the history and 
cultural relationships of Middle 



Rodriguez, Leopoldo Alejandro 

1948 Estudio geografico, historico, 
etnografico, filologico y arqueolo- 
gico de la Republica de El Salva- 
dor en Centro America. A. Soc. 
Geog. Hist. Guat., 23:146-229. 

Paper read at the XVII Congreso de 
Americanistas in Mexico, 1910. 

Rodriguez, Rosaura H. 

1950 Documentos relacionados con San 
Bartolome Tlatelolco. In Tlatelol- 
co . . ., XL 

Some 16th- and early 17th-century 
documents relative to the coloniza- 
tion of the Valle de Toluca by the 
Mexica Axayacatl, father of Mocte- 
zuma II, and to the foundation of 
San Miguel Tlatelolco. 

Rodriguez Beteta, Virgilio 

1950 La caida y desaparicion del "Pri- 
mer Imperio" maya. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 2:54-67. 

Reviews all previous hypotheses and 
presents a new one: that deforesta- 
tion for agriculture altered the rain- 
fall, and that the droughts of de- 
forested areas on the one hand, and 
the torrential (and destructive) 
rains of the untouched areas on the 
other, so upset weather predictions 
and agricultural instructions by the 
priests that socio-political upheavals 

Rodriguez Macal, Virgilio 

1951 Ensayos de interpretacion sobre el 
Popol-Vuh y Ids origenes de la 
civilization maya. A. Soc. Geog. 
Hist. Guat., 25:330-53. 

Hypotheses regarding the antiquity 
and origin ol the Quiche, and of the 
Maya civilization, based on contents 
of the Popol Vuh. 

Rodriguez Prampolini, Ida 

1949 El arte indigena y los cronistas de 
Nueva Espafia. A. Inst. Inv. Estet., 
no. 17, pp. 5-16. 

Value judgments in early Spanish 
appraisals of Mexican Indian sculp- 
ture, jewelry, and other arts. 

Romano, Arturo 

1955 Nota preliminar sobre los restos 
humanos sub-fosiJes de Santa Ma- 
ria Astahuascan, D. F. A. Inst. Nac. 
Antr. Hist., 7:65-77. 

One of the skeletons is compared to 

Romero, Emilia 

1951 ^Existe alguna relacion entre "Los 
Danzantes" de Monte Alban en 
Mexico y los monolitos de Cerro 
Sechin en el Peru? In Tax, 1951, 
pp. 285-90. 

Sees resemblances between these 
carvings but does not present any 
sound argument for their cultural 
or historical relationship. 

Romero Quiroz, Javier 

1956 El dios Tolotzin. Toponimia de 
Toluca. Toluca, Mexico. 

Suggests a related etymology for the 
terms Toluca, Toloa, Tolotzin and 
Coltzin (place names, plant name, 
and god's name). 

See Dahlgren, Barbro, and , 1951; 

De Terra, Helmut, , and T. D. 

Stewart, 1949. 

Rosado Ojeda, Vladimiro 

1948 Interpretacion de la grada jero- 
glifica del Chanal, Colima. In El 
Occidente de Mexico, pp. 72-73. 
Description of a hieroglyphic stair- 
way with animal and deity figures 
in Aztec style. 

Roys, Ralph L. 

1949a Guide to the Codex Perez. Carne- 
gie Inst. Wash., Pub. 585, Contrib. 

Description, commentary, and an- 
notated tables of contents of the 
Maya-Christian year correlations, 
prognostics and prophecies, astrolo- 
gy, chronological treatises, and other 
documents assembled in the Codex 

1949b The prophecies for the Maya tuns 
or years in the Books of Chilam 
Balam of Tizimin and Mani. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Pub. 585, Con- 
trib. 51. 

Commentary, and annotated trans- 
lation and text of a series of prophe- 
cies for a "Katun 5 Ahau" in the 
Books of Chilam Balam of Tizimin 
and Mani. 

1949-52 Annual report on documentary 
research. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Year Books 48-51. 

1950 Guia para el Codice Perez. Tra- 
duccion de Gustavo Vega Ibarra. 
Mexico, Ediciones de la Liga de 
Accion Social. 

Translated extract of his 1949a, with 
additional notes by the translator 
of the codex, Ermilo Soils Alcala. 



1952 Conquest sites and the subsequent 
destruction of Maya architecture 
in the interior of northern Yuca- 
tan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 
596, Contrib. 54. 

A most thorough and interesting 
study showing that many towns are 
located at their pre-Spanish sites, 
their churches and plazas often at 
the old ceremonial centers, with 
sequences of earlier buildings under- 
neath. Illustrated. 

1954 The Maya katun prophecies of the 
books of Chilam Balam, Series I. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 606, 
Contrib. 57. 

Valuable translation and commen- 
tary on the native Maya prophetic 
literature of colonial times. 

1957 The political geography of the 
Yucatan Maya. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 613. 

As its name implies, this is essential- 
ly a political geography, but the 
term does not do full justice to the 
scope and usefulness of this book. 
Written by the outstanding author- 
ity on early native Yucatec history 
and ethnology, this description of 
the 16 Indian "provinces" of Yuca- 
tan contains a well of ethnic data. 

Rubin de la Borbolla, Daniel F. 

1948a Arqueologia tarasca. In El Occi- 
dente de Mexico, pp. 29-33. 

Synthesis of archaeological data on 
this region, recognizing three cul- 
tural horizons. 

1948b Problennas de la arqueologia de 
Chupicuaro. In El Occidente de 
Mexico, pp. 48-49. 

Definition of the Chupicuaro ar- 
chaeological zone and its diverse 
local manifestations. 

1953 Mexico: monumentos historicos y 
arqueologicos. Iru;t. Panam. Geog. 
Hist.. Pub. 145 (Comission de His- 
toria, no. 43; Monumentos histo- 
ricos y arqueologicos, no. 7) . 

The first 232 illustrations and pages 
101-280 treat of archaeological ma- 
terials. Fine pictures. 

AND Pedro Rivas 

-, and Hugo Cerezo 

1953 Guatemala: monumentos histo- 
ricos y arqueologicos. Inst. Panam. 
Geog. Hist., Pub. 144 (Comision 
de Historia, no. 42; Monumentos 
historicos y arqueologicos, no. 6) . 

1953 Honduras: monumentos historicos 
y arqueologicos. Inst. Panam. 
Geog. Hist., Pub. 144 (Comision 
Historia, no. 44; Monumentos his- 
toricos y arqueologicos, no. 8) . 

RuBio, Angel 

1950 Panama. Monumentos historicos y 
arqueologicos. Inst. Panam. Geog. 
Hist., Pub. 109 (Comision de His- 
toria, Monumentos historicos y ar- 
queologicos, no. 1). 

Chapter 3 reviews the history of 
archaeological research in Panama. 

RuBio Mane, Jorge Ignacio 

1956 El cronista maya Caspar Antonio 
Chi, 1531-1610. Mem. Acad. Mex. 
Hist., 15:102-08. 

Biographical material on the Tutul 
Xiu family and the famed Mani 

RuppERT, Karl 

1950 Gallery-patio type structures at 
Chichen Itza. In For the Dean, 
pp. 249-59. 

Description and distribution of an 
architectural type. Five pages of 
floor plans. 

1952 Chichen Itza: architectural notes 
and plans. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Pub. 595. 

Introduction summarizes the chief 
architectural differences between 
early and late structures at Chichen. 
Remainder of text is a useful catalog 
of drawings, notes on the architec- 
ture, bibliographic references, and 
photographs of over 170 structures 
at this site. 

— , AND A. L. Smith 

1951-55 Annual report on excavations 
at Mayapan, Yucatan. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Year Books 50-54. 

1952 Excavations in house mounds at 
Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 4. 

Dwellings at Mayapan were like 
those described by Landa in the 16th 
century. This report describes them, 
the associated cists and tombs, and 

1954 Excavations in house mounds at 
Mayapan: HI. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Rept. 17. 

More data on domestic architecture, 
with special attention to tombs. 



1955 Two new gallery-patio type struc- 
tures at Chichen Itza. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 122. 

These two new discoveries bring to 
13 the number of structures of this 
type found at and, so far as is 
known, limited to Chichen Itza. 

1957 House types in the environs of 
Mayapan and at Uxmal, Kabah, 
Sayil, Chichen Itza, and Chacchob. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 

Comparative studies reveal geo- 
graphical and possibly chronological 
differences in dwellings. 

-, J. Eric S. Thompson, and Tatiana 

1955 Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico. 
Copies of the mural paintings by 
Antonio Tejeda F. Identification 
of pigments by Rutherford J. Get- 
tens. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 

Although there have been numerous 
popular and semi-official descrip- 
tions of this famous site, this is the 
definitive professional publication 
on it. Attacking the subject in all its 
aspects — geographical, historical, 
architectural, epigraphic, and artis- 
tic — a team of experts has produced 
a meaningful interpretation and re- 
construction of ancient Mayan life. 
Magnificent color reproductions. 

See Smith, A. Ledyard, and , 1953, 

1954, 1956. 

Ruz Lhuillier, Alberto 

1949-50 Exploraciones arqueologicas en 
Palenque, 1949. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 4:49-60. 

Account of the 1949 season's explo- 
rations and restorations in the 
Palace, the Temple of the Tablets, 
and the zone of burials. 

1951a Chichen-Itza y Palenque, ciudades 
fortificadas. In Homenaje Caso, 
pp. 331-42. 

The Toltec section of Chichen-Itza 
was enclosed by a defense wall 
similar to that of Mayapan; the 
author believes a small structure 
destroyed by road-building was its 
western entrance. Palenque was also 
fortified against Chontales or Nono- 
alco, the platforms with interior 
stairways being defensive in func- 

1951b Exploraciones en Palenque, 1950. 
A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 5:25-45. 
Well illustrated with maps, plans, 
sections, drawings, and photographic 

1951c Exploraciones en Palenque, 1951. 
A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 5:47-66. 

Same as his 1951b, for following 
field season. 

1952a Camara secreta del Templo de las 
Inscripciones. Tlatoani, 1:2-5. 

Further account of the spectacular 
discoveries at Palenque. Illustrated. 

1952b Estudio de la cripta del Templo de 
las Inscripciones en Palenque. 
Tlatoani, 1:3-28. 

Describes the spectacular discoveries 
of stone subterranean stairways, 
crypts, and magnificent stone sculp- 
tures. Discusses Old World analogies 
but concludes that the time differ- 
ences are too great to allow of direct 

1952c Exploraciones en Palenque: 1952. 
A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 6:79-110. 

Excavations at the Palace and the 
Temple of the Inscriptions, with a 
detailed account and many illustra- 
tions of the spectacular tomb vmder- 
neath the latter. 

1952d Importante decouverte a Palen- 
que dans la pyramide du "Temple 
des Inscriptions." J. Soc. Am., n.s., 

Preliminary account of the spectacu- 
lar secret stairway, crypt, and 
sculptures under the Temple of the 
Inscriptions. Illustrated. 

1952e Investigaciones arqueologicas en 
Palenque. Cuad. Am., 67:149-65. 

Preliminary account, with excellent 
illustrations, of the recent hidden 
stairway and tomb discoveries. 

1952f Uxmal: temporada de trabajos 
1951-1952. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 

Illustrated account of excavations 
at the Monjas and the Governor's 
Palace, with additional photographs 
of work at the Magician Pyramid. 

1953a The mystery of the Temple of the 

Inscriptions. Archaeology, 6:2-11. 

Another general and preliminary 

but well-illustrated account of the 

spectacular discoveries at Palenque. 

1953b The pyramid tomb of a prince of 
Palenque. Illus. London News, 
vol. 223, no. 5967, pp. 321-23. 

Stirring account of the discovery at 
Palenque, well illustrated, including 
two full-page color photos of the 
pyramid and the jade mask. 



1954a Exploraciones en Palenque. Pro. 
30th Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 5-22. 
Architecture, sculpture, painting, 
and ceramics, with interpretations. 

1954b La piramide-tumba de Palenque. 
Cuad. Am., 74:41-59. 

One of his series in this journal, 
describing the famous discoveries at 

1957 La civilizacion de los antiguos 
mayas. Santiago, U. Oriente, Dept. 
Extension y Relaciones Cultu- 

Concise description of Mesoamerican 
prehistory followed by a brief report 
on Mayan culture, with special 
reference to the author's work at 
Palenque and elsewhere. Profusely 

Saenz, Cesar A. 

1952 El adoratorio central, Palacio del 
Gobernador, Uxmal. Tlatoani, 1: 

Excavation and restoration of this 
structure, with a description of ob- 
jects discovered, including a carved 
"alabaster" vase. 

1956 Exploraciones en la piramide de 
la cruz foliada. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., Direccion de Monumentos 
Prehispanicos, Informes, no. 5. 

Preliminary description of pottery 
and other artifacts, including some 
heavily ornamented clay cylinders, 
encountered in tombs and architec- 
ture at Palenque. Illustrated, with 
an appendix on hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions by Cesar Lizardi Ramos. 

por Porfirio Aguirre. Parts 1-3. 
Col. Amatlacuilotl. Mexico, Var- 
gas Rea. 

Reproductions, both black-a n d- 
white and in colors, with Spanish 
and Nahuatl text in parallel col- 

1953 Florentine codex. General history 
of the things of New Spain. Book 
7: The sun, moon, and stars, and 
the binding of the years. Trans- 
lated from the Aztec into English, 
with notes and illustrations, by 
Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles 
E. Dibble. School Am.. Research, 
Monogr. 14, pt. 8. 

Another fine translation in this 

1955 Florentine codex. General history 
of the things of New Spain. Book 
12: The conquest of Mexico. Trans- 
lated from the Aztec into English, 
with notes and illustrations, by 
Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles 
E. Dibble. School Am.. Research, 
Monogr. 14, pt. 13. 

Continuation of this excellent series 
of translation, with the drawings 

1957 Florentine Codex. General history 
of the things of New Spain. Book 
4: The soothsayers; Book 5: The 
omens. Translated from the Aztec 
into English, with notes and illus- 
trations, by Arthur J. O. Anderson 
and Charles E. Dibble. School 
Am. Research, Monogr. 14, pts. 5 
and 6. 

A continuation of this series of the 
definitive translation. 

Sahagun, Bernardino de 

1950a Florentine Codex. General history 
of the things of New Spain. Book 
1: The gods. Translated from the 
Aztec into English, with notes and 
illustrations, by Arthur J. O. An- 
derson and Charles E. Dibble. 
School Am. Research, Monogr. 14, 
pt. 2. 

The first of this series, with parallel 
passages in double columns and re- 
productions of the original illustra- 

1950b Primeros memoriales de Tepeo- 
pulco. Anonimos indigenas. Tra- 
ducidos del nahuatl al espanol 

Salazar O., Ponciano 

1952 El tzompantli de Chichen Itza, 
Yucatan. Tlatoani, 1:31-41. 

Recent excavations at the Tzom- 
pantli, with a description of the 
newly decorated (14th) chac mool of 
Chichen Itza and a ball-court ring. 

Sanders, William T. 

1952 El mercado de Tlatelolco: un 
estudio en economia urbana. Tla- 
toani, 1: 14-16. 

Lists of goods marketed offer clues 
to specialization and other urban 
aspects of life in ancient Mexico. 



1955 An archaeological reconnaissance 
of northern Quintana Roo. Carne- 
gie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 24. 

Further description of ruins pre- 
viously noted by Escalona Ramos 
and Miguel Angel Fernandez, plus 
some new discoveries in the little- 
known area. 

1956 The central Mexican symbiotic re- 
gion: a study in prehistoric settle- 
ment patterns. In Willey, 1956, pp. 

Outlines the basic ecological fac- 
tors of importance to human settle- 
ment in central Mexico, from 
archaeological and early historic or 
protohistoric native sources. 

Sandoval, Lisandro 

1951 Chiquimula. A. Soc. Geog. Hist. 
Guat., 25:291-303. 

Includes an etymology of native 
place names in the Chiquimula dis- 
trict of Guatemala. 

Sarmiento, Miguel E. 

1957 Breves aportaciones a la arque- 
ologia regional. Cent. Estud. Hist. 
Puehla, no. 5. 

Superficial interpretation of "Ar- 
chaic" values inferred from figurine 

Satterthw^aite, Linton 

1948a Further implications of Thomp- 
son's readings of Maya inscrip- 
tions at Copan. Acts Intl. Cong. 
Am., pp. 467-93. 

Tests several hypotheses, both old 
and new, against new epigraphic 
data available from Thompson's 
Copan readings. Suggests that, at 
different times for any site, the 
Maya may have made use of old- 
moon and new-moon zero days set 
two days apart, and possibly also of 
conjunction days as zero days (one 
day after old-moon and one day be- 
fore new-moon day); that such 
shifts, from an originally universal 
new-moon zero day, resulted from 
using old-moon observations to 
check eclipse predictions; that the 
total range for any one lunation 
zero (deviation) was something 
more than three days; and that both 
calculated and observed ages were 
recorded. Evidence against Teeple's 
theory of Maya measurements of 
accumulated error in the vague 

1948b Note on the Maya eclipse table 
of the Dresden Codex. Am. Antiq., 
14: 61-62. 

Further discussion of Maya astro- 
nomical recording, a rejoinder to 
Robert Merrill's review of Satterth- 
waite's earlier monograph, Concepts 
and structures of Maya calendrical 

1949 The dark phase of the moon and 
ancient Maya methods of solar 
eclipse prediction. Am. Antiq., 14: 

A critique of Merrill's articles on 
this subject (see Merrill, 1949), with 
suggestions as to suspected shifts of 
the zero day of a moon-age count. 

1950a Plastic art on a Mava palace. 
Archaeology, 3:215-22. " 

Photographs and preliminary de- 
scription of important new relief 
sculptures in British Honduras. 

1950b Reconnaissance in British Hon- 
duras. B. U. Mus., 16:21-36. 

Summary and excellent photographs 
of the important discoveries at 
Cahal Pech, Xunan Tunich (Benque 
Viejo) and Caracol. 

1951a Moon ages of Maya inscriptions: 
the problem of their seven-day 
range of deviation from calcu- 
lated mean ages. In Tax, 1951, pp. 

Visible new-moon day was the \ini- 
versal lunation-zero during an 
early part of the Initial Series 
period. Alternative postulate: at 
some sites at least, visible new- 
moon day was abandoned in favor 
of conjunction-day in pre-monument 
time, with the implication that solar 
eclipses were being successfully pre- 
dicted in this pre-Classical period. 

1951b Reconnaissance in British Hondu- 
ras. B. U. Mus., 16:21-36. 

Preliminary account of the discover- 
ies at Cahal Pech, Benque Viejo, 
and the spectacular remains at Cara- 
col. Excellent illustrations. 

1952 Piedras Negras archaeology: 
architecture. Part 5: Sweathouses, 
nos. 1-4. U. Pennsylvania, U. Mus. 

Exhaustive study of sweathouses, 
drawings on archaeological, early 
post-conquest documentary, and 
modern ethnographic data, with a 
detailed report on structures ex- 
cavated at Piedras Negras. Sweat- 
bathing was a type of cure by cere- 
monial and magico-religious as well 
as physical means. 



1954a Piedras Negras archaeology: 
architecture. Part 6: Unclassified 
buildings and substructures. U. 
Pennsylvania, U. Mus. 

Continuation of the excellent and 
detailed reporting of excavations at 
Piedras Negras. Profusely illustrated 
with drawings and photographs. 

1954b Sculptured monuments from Ca- 
racol, British Honduras. B. U. 
Mus., 18:2-45. 

Beautifully illustrated description, 
analysis, and translation of inscrip- 
tions on sculptures from this spec- 
tacular new Mayan site. 

Sauer, Carl O. 

1948 Colima of New Spain in the six- 
teenth century. U. California 
Press, Ibero-Americana, no. 29. 
Contains one chapter on aboriginal 
cultures, chiefly geographical data. 

ScHAEFER. Claude 

1948 Essai d'interpretation iconogra- 
phique de la sculpture monumen- 
tale de La Venta, Tabasco. Acts 
Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 563-64. 

Resume of a reconstruction of 
"Olmec" religion; finds a basic 
Mesoamerican set of beliefs and 
practices featuring infant sacrifice 
to agricultural deities. 

Schaeffer, Ernesto 

1951 El corregidor del Peten, Coronel 
Modesto Mendez, y el Encargado 
de Negocios de Prusia von Hesse. 
Antr. Hist. Guat., 3:55-60. 

Clarification of the Ritter publica- 
tion of the Tikal expedition by 
Mendez in 1848. 

Scherzer, Karl 

1954 Los indios de Santa Catarina Istla- 
vacan (pie de mujer) ; una con- 
tribucion para la historia de la 
cultura de los habitantes origin- 
ales de Centro America. Publicado 
en Viena, 1856. Traduccion por 
Ernesto Schaeffer. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 6:13-21. 

Schroeder, Albert H. 

1955 Ball courts and ball games of Mid- 
dle America and Arizona. Archae- 
ology, 8: 156-61. 

Ball courts of Middle America and 
southwest U. S. are compared and 
contrasted, with implications regard- 
ing cultural contacts between these 


1949 Los llamados numeros de ser- 
piente del Codice Maya de Dres- 
den y el punto cero de la cuenta 
larga maya. Mex. Antig., 7:322-42. 

Interpretation of the calendrical 
glyphs associated with the winding 
serpents in the Dresden Codex. 

1952 The "serpent-numbers" and the 
"tropical year" in the Maya Dres- 
den Codex. The hieroglyphs of the 
lunar table on pages 51-58 of the 
Maya Dresden Codex. The so- 
called "ring-numbers" of the 
Maya Dresden Codex. The start- 
ing date and the final dates of the 
serpent numbers of the Maya 
Dresden Codex. Tlalocan, 3:274- 

Four short articles interpreting 
hieroglyphic passages in the Dresden 

1955a Dos variantes nuevas del calen- 
dario chinanteco. Mex. Antig., 8: 

From the village of Zapote, near the 
Veracruz frontier. 

1955b Sobre la antigiiedad de los monu- 
mentos del llamado "antiguo im- 
perio de los mayas": una nueva 
sincronologia de los calendarios 
maya y europeo. Mex. Antig., 8: 

Presents sun-eclipse combinations 
and favors a 677723 correlation 

ScHULTZE Jena, Leonhard 

1952 Gliederung des alt-aztekischen 
Volks in Familie, Stand und Beruf. 
Stuttgart, Kohlhammer Verlag. 

Translated with comments from the 
original Nahuatl text of Bernardino 
de Sahagun. 

1954 (ed.). Gliederung des alt-Azte- 

kischen Volks in Familie, Stand 

und Beruf. Aus dem Aztekischen 

Urtext Bernardino de Sahagun's. 

Quellenwerke zur alten Geschi- 

chte Amerikas Aufgezeichnet in 

den Sprachen der Eingeborenen 

V. Stuttgart, Kohlhammer Verlag. 

Facing Nahuatl and German text 

of Sahagun. No illustrations. Full 

Nahuatl glossary at end. 

Scrimshaw, Nevin S. 

See Borhegyi, Stephan F., and , 1957. 



Sears, Paul B. 

1951 Pollen profiles and culture hori- 
zons in the basin of Mexico. In 
Tax, 1951, pp. 57-61. 

The early Formative culture and the 
Aztecs enjoyed relatively humid 
climates in the basin of Mexico. Be- 
tween them was a dry period, be- 
ginning in late Formative or proto- 
Classic times and possibly contribut- 
ing to economic collapse in the 
later Teotihuacan phases. 

1952 Palynology in southern North 
America. 1: Archaeological hori- 
zons in the basins of Mexico. B. 
Geol. Soc. Am., 63:241-54. 

The "Early and Middle Archaic" of 
central Mexico is assigned to a moist 
interval. The Archaic culture "began 
at high elevation during a period of 
favorable moist climate and per- 
sisted into the subsequent dry in- 
terval B3 during which it descended 
to the low level of Tepalcate until 
obliged to move perhaps by the ash 
fall of B2." Believes that Teotihua- 
can collapsed due to lack of water 

1953 The interdependence of arche- 
ology and ecology, with examples 
from Middle America. Trans. New 
York Acad. Sci., pp. 113-17. 

Pollen counts provide possible en- 
vironmental explanations of cultural 
trends in Mexican prehistory. 

Sejourne, Laurette 

1950 Ensayo sobre el sacrificio humane. 
Cuad. Am., 53:165-71. 

Aztec human sacrifice viewed in 
the light of nature mythology and 
native concepts of social structure. 

1952a Una interpretacion de las figuri- 
llas del Arcaico. R. Mex. Estud. 
Antr., 13:49-63. 

Ingenious suggestion that the Ar- 
chaic figurines are anthropo- 
morphized magical symbols of corn. 
Similar concepts are noted for 
modern Indians in the southwest 
United States and Middle America, 
and details of the archaeological 
specimens are analyzed in support 
of the hypothesis. 

1952b Palenque, una ciudad maya. Me- 
xico, Fondo de Cultura Econo- 

Popular account of Maya culture as 
exemplified at Palenque, stressing 
the pacific nature of the culture, 
which is debatable, and interpret- 
ing both the rise and decline of 
Maya civiliation largely in terms 
of intellectual achievements. 

1954a El mensaje de Quetzalcoatl. Cuad. 

Am., 77:159-72. 

Nature and significance of the 
Quetzalcoatl myth, and its tremend- 
ous influence on later Mexican pre- 
historic culture. 

1954b Teotihuacan, la ciudad sagrada 
de Quetzalcoatl. Cuad. Am., 75: 

Presents his reasons for believing 
Teotihuacan, not Tula, was the capi- 
tal of the Toltecs. 

1954c Tula, la supuesta capital de los 
toltecas. Cuad. Am., 73: 153-69. 
First of three articles presenting the 
hypothesis that Teotihuacan, not 
Tula, was capital of the Toltecs and 
that it was the home of Quetzalcoatl. 

1954d Xochipilli y Xochiquetzal en Teo- 
tihuacan. Yan, 3:54-55. 

Attributes of these deities depicted 
in clay figurines and on pottery 

1955 Identificacion de una diosa zapo- 
teca. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 7: 

Representations of Nohuichana, god- 
dess corresponding to the Mayan 
Ixchel and the Aztecan Tlazolteotl. 

1956 Burning water: thought and re- 
ligion in ancient Mexico. London, 
Thames &. Hudson. 

Following some excellent cultural 
and historical background sections, 
the author discusses Nahuatl religion 
and symbolic language, with one 
chapter devoted to the leading 
deities. The area that this book 
covers most thoughtfully makes it 
a unique contribution. 

Seler, Eduard 

1953 La lapida de Huitzuco, estado de 
Guerrero. Yan, 2: 142-47. 

Seler 's 1904 paper, translated into 
Spanish, with new photographs by 
Carmen Cook de Leonard. 

Seler-Sachs, Caecilis 

Fragmentos de vasijas de barro 
con decoracion en relieve. Mex. 
Antig., 7:96-118. 

Specimens described are chiefly 
from Puebla, Veracruz, and Oaxaca. 

Shackelford, William J. 
See Kelley, J. Charles, and 

-, 1954. 



Shepard, Anna O. 

1948 Plumbate: A Mesoamerican trade 
ware. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 

Definitive study of one of the most 
important wares, its forms and deco- 
rative styles, its teciinology, geo- 
graphic and chronological distribu- 
tion, and its ethnic significance. 

1948-57 Annual report on ceramic tech- 
nology. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year 
Books 47-56. 

Technological methods applied to 
historical, economic, and cultural 
problems in archaeology. 

Shook, Edwin M. 

1948-55 Annual report on excavations 
in Guatemala highlands and at 
Mayapan, Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Year Books 47-54. 

1949a Historia arqueologica del Puerto 
de San Jose, Guatemala. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 1:3-21. 

Description of pre-Classic, Classic, 
and post-Classic archaeological re- 
mains of the Guatemala west coast, 
with discussion and hypotheses re- 
garding the sequence of prehistoric 
trends in that area. 

1949b Some recent aspects of Mayan 
civilization and maize culture on 
the Pacific coast of Guatemala. 
Iowa State College, Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Plant Re- 
search in the Tropics, Research 
Bull. 371. 

Proposes that the earliest agricul- 
turalists in Guatemala lived along 
the coastal plain, and were slowly 
pushed into the highlands to the 
broad plains behind the cordillera, 
where industries became specialized 
and products were traded for those 
of the lowlands, still the main source 
of food. 

1950 Tiquisate UFERS scoop archaeo- 
logical world. Find ruined city on 
farm. Unijruitco, Aug., pp. 62-63. 
Account of discoveries and excava- 
tions at Sin Cabezas, a Late Classic 
site in the Tiquisate area of western 
Guatemala. Illustrated. 

1951a Investigaciones arqueologicas en 
las ruinas de Tikal, Departamento 
de El Peten, Guatemala. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 3:9-32. 

New discoveries and additional rec- 
ords on Tikal, especially Group H, 
the Ball Court, Structure 27, the 
North Acropolis of Group A, and 
Temple II. Three types of architec- 
ture are noted. 

1951b The present status of research on 
the pre-Classic horizons in Guate- 
mala. In Tax, 1951, pp. 93-100. 

Concise outline of early cultures of 
Guatemala with the following hy- 
potheses: first steps from nomadic 
to sedentary existence based on agri- 
culture took place in such areas as 
the Pacific and Atlantic lowlands of 
Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. 
Increased population caused the 
coastal people to push up the valley 
heads into the highlands in search 
of further cultivable land. Here, 
however, the land was less produc- 
tive and proteins scarcer. The need 
for coastal food stimulated highland 
industries and trade. The later col- 
lapse of pre-Classic cultures was 
caused by a chain reaction of pres- 
sure from north and south, which 
may have originated in northern 

1952a The great wall of Mayapan. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 2. 
Description of the wall that sur- 
rounds the entire residential area, 
and speculations regarding its func- 

1952b Lugares arqueologicos del alti- 
plano meridional central de Guate- 
mala. Antr. Hist. Guat., 4:3-40. 

Useful brief description and chrono- 
logical placement of over 100 sites 
in the departments of Guatemala, 
Sacatepequez, and Chimaltenango. 
Large map of the area. 

1952c The ruins of Cotio, department of 
Guatemala, Guatemala. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 107. 

Description of a ball court, mounds, 
and a Late Classic (Amatle phase) 
grave and mortuary pottery from a 
site near Kaminaljuyu. 

1953 The X-Coton temples at Mayapan. 

Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 

Two structures associated with the 
two major entrances through the 
Great Wall and with the cenote. 
One contained an interesting crema- 
tory shaft; the other supported twin 

1954a A round temple at Mayapan, Yu- 
catan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 16. 

A shrine was set in its stairway, 
containing a carved stone idol, as 
yet unidentified. 

1954b The Temple of Kukulcan at Maya- 
pan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 20. 

The succession of building events 
at the main structure is deduced 
from stratigraphic excavation. 



1954c Three temples and their associ- 
ated structures at Mayapan. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 14. 

One contained a deep shaft which 
held 40 human skeletons and other 
remains. Many photographs and 
some excellent plans and sections. 

1955 Another round temple at Maya- 
pan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 27. 

Associated artifacts indicate cere- 
monial importance of this structure. 
Excellent plan, section, elevation, 
and photographs. 

1956 An Olmec sculpture from Guate- 
mala. Archaeology, 9:261-62. 

Fragment of an unusual jade sculp- 
ture in Olmec or La Venta style, 
from the Pacific coast of Guatemala. 

1957a Dentate and dentate rocker 
stamping from Tabasco. Am. An- 
tiq., 22:285-87. 

These techniques, although rare in 
Middle America, appear sporadically 
from Mexico to Honduras during 
the Formative and Late Classic 
periods. A possible important time 

1957b Una escultura olmeca de Guate- 
mala. Antr. Hist. Guat., 9:3-16. 
Spanish translation of his 1956. 

1957c Estado actual de las investiga- 
ciones en el horizonte preclasico 
de Guatemala. Antr. Hist. Guat., 

Spanish translation of his 1951b. 

1957d The Tikal project. B. U. Mus., 21: 

New discoveries during the pre- 
liminary work at this great Maya 
site in the Peten. 

— , AND William N. Irving 
1955 Colonnaded buildings at Maya- 
pan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 22. 

Detailed study of the architecture 
and artifacts, with suggestions re- 
garding the function of these 
specialized colonnaded halls. 

— , AND Alfred V. Kidder 
1952 Mound E-lII-3, Kaminaljuyu, 

Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 

Pub. 596, Contrib. 53. 

Account of excavations, description 
of mortuary offerings, and discus- 
sion of the remarkable rich tombs in 
a pre-Classic mound. Interesting 
speculations on the hearth of proto- 
Classic developments. 81 excellent 

, AND Tatiana Proskouriakoff 

1956 Settlement patterns in Meso- 
america and the sequence in the 
Guatemala highlands. In Willey, 
1956, pp. 93-100. 
Earliest ceramic remains in Middle 
America are from town setlements 
rather than purely agricultural vil- 
lage communities. Describes three 
successive settlement patterns in 

, AND Robert E. Smith 

1950 Descubrimientos arqueologicos en 
Poptun. Antr. Hist. Guat., 2:3-15. 
Results of a four-day visit, the archi- 
tecture described by Shook and the 
pottery and artifacts by Smith. 
Poptun itself is a Late Classic period 
ruin, but the general region was 
occupied in Formative period (Chi- 
cane!) times. Copper rattles from La 
Hortaliza suggest also a post-Classic 

Smith, A. Ledyard 

1949-55 Annual report on excavations 
in Guatemala highlands and in 
Mavapan, Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Year Books 48-54. 
1950 Uaxactun, Guatemala: excava- 
tions of 1931-1937. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 588. 

Beautifully illustrated and concisely 
written report of the important 
Uaxactun excavations, tracing the 
growth of the city, the evolution of 
stone-vaulted structures over a 
period of 600 years, and related 
ceramic, epigraphic, burial, and 
cache information. Excellent intro- 
duction by A. V. Kidder. 

1955 Archaeological reconnaissance in 
central Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 608. 

Profusely illustrated with excellent 
maps, plans, sections, and restora- 
tions, this book reports on the first 
thorough archaeological survey of 
Huehuetenango, Quiche, and the 
Verapaz. The architectural and as- 
semblage data will be particularly 
important in interpreting prehistoric 
trends in this little-known archaeo- 
logical area. 

-, AND Alfred V. Kidder 

1951 Excavations at Nebaj, Guatemala. 
With notes on the skeletal mate- 
rial by T. D. Stewart. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Pub. 594. 

Important report of excavations in 
the Guatemala highlands, yielding 
architecture, tombs, ceramics, and 
other artifacts in a controlled 
stratigraphy from Early Classic 
times to a late horizon. Profusely 



— , AND Karl Ruppert 

1953 Excavations in house mounds at 
Mayapan: II. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 10. 

Description, drawings, and photo- 
graphs of small structures and asso- 
ciated artifacts. 

1954 Ceremonial or formal archway, 
Uxmal. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 

Hitherto unreported ruined jirch- 
way south of the Governor's Palace. 

1956 Excavations in house mounds at 
Mayapan: IV. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Rept. 36. 

Small assemblages, dwellings, altar 
shrine, and property wall. Four 
pages of architectural drawings and 
seven of photographed excavations 
and artifacts, including a jointed 

-, 1951, 1952, 

See Ruppert, Karl, and 
1954, 1955. 

Smith, Philip E. 

1955 Excavations in three ceremonial 
structures at Mayapan. Ca7~negie 
Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 21. 

A sequence of three building phases 
is established for the ritual center 
of the city. 

Smith, Robert E. 

1948-57 Annual report on ceramic stud- 
ies in Guatemala and Yucatan. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year Books 

1952 Pottery from Chipoc, Alta Vera- 
paz, Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 596, Contrib. 56. 

Sequence of Late Classic and post- 
Classic ceramics and their associa- 
tions with other sequences. 26 illu- 
strations with full captions. 

1953 Cenote X-Coton at Mayapan. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 5. 

Evidence that this cenote was used 
ceremonially as well as for water, 
with possible division into cere- 
monial precincts. 

1954a Cenote exploration at Mayapan 
and Telchaquillo. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Rept. 12. 

Evidence that red earth for pottery 
slips and for house walls was mined 
in cenotes. 

1954b Exploration on the outskirts of 
Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 18. 

Discoveries at Santa Cruz and Tel- 
chaquillo, which were occupied 
from Formative times into the 
Mayapan period. 

1954c Pottery specimens from Guate- 
mala: I. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Note 118. 

Well-illustrated record of specimens 
not described elsewhere in Carnegie 
Institution's program. 

1955a Ceramic sequence at Uaxactun, 
Guatemala. Tulane U., Middle Am. 
Research Inst., Pub. 20. 

Final and definitive report on proto- 
Classic Formative through Late 
Classic pottery from the famous 
Carnegie Institution excavations in 
the Peten. Vol. 1 contains text, Vol. 
2 the illustrations. 

1955b A correction on "preclassic met- 
al"? Am. Antiq., 20:379-80. 

Doubt now cast on the provenience 
of sheet copper previously reported 
to be from a pre-Classic tomb in 
Guatemala (see Sorenson, 1954). 

1955c Early ceramic horizons at Maya- 
pan and Santa Cruz. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Rept. 26. 

Formative, Classic, Puuc, and Toltec 
period types. 

1955d Pottery specimens from Guate- 
mala: II. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Note 124. 

Description of pottery from Hon, 
Panajachel, and La Flojera. 

1955e Pottery vessels from Campeche. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 125. 
Late Classic vessels from a Cam- 
peche mound. 

1957a The Marquez collection of X Fine 
Orange and Fine Orange poly- 
chrome vessels. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 131. 

Technical description with 17 pages 
of illustrations of a collection said 
to be from the Isla de Jaina and at 

1957b Tohil plumbate and classic Maya 
polychrome vessels in the Mar- 
quez collection. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 129. 

Well-illustrated technical descrip- 
tion of an undocumented private 
collection, probably from the Cam- 
peche coast. 

See Shook, Edwin M., and , 1950. 



Smith, Watson 

1956 George Walton Brainerd, 1909- 
1956. Am. Antiq., 22:165-68. 

The career and bibliography of a 
leading archaeologist. 


CoLEGio Nacional de Arquitectos DE 

1956 4000 anos de arquitectura mexi- 
cana. Mexico, Libreros Mexicanos 

The first 63 pages (47 plates) are 
splendid photographs of prehistoric 


1953 Modern and ancient soils at some 
archaeological sites in the Valley 
of Mexico. Am. Antiq., 19:50-55. 
Pedologic-geochemical study of soils 
indicates a relatively gradual cli- 
matic change from the Wisconsin 
glaciation to the present, from a cold 
pluvial, through moderately pluvial 
continental, to the present season- 
ally arid. 

SoLis Alcala, Ermilo (tr.) 
1949 Codice Perez. Merida, Mexico, 
Ediciones de la Liga de Accion 

Spanish translation, illustrated. 

Some Educational and Anthropological 
Aspects of Latin America 

1948 Inst. Latin American Studies, no. 
5. U. Texas, Austin. 

SoRENSON, John L. 

1954a Indications of early metal in 
Mesoamerica. B. U. Archaeol. Soc, 

Assembles information on Classic 
period metallurgy and possibly 
earlier metal specimens from Middle 

1954b Preclassic metal? Am,. Antiq., 20: 

Two occurrences of metal, at Cui- 
cuilco and San Miguel Ixtahuacan, 
which Sorenson suggests may have 
been of pre-Classic age. 

Sotomayor, Arturo 

1949 Dos sepulcros en Bonampak. Me- 
xico, Ediciones Libreria del Prado. 

Account of the ill-fated Bonampak 
expedition of 1949, by a journalist 
member of the group. 

SousTELLE, Jacques 

1948 Observations sur le symbolisme 
du nombre cinq chez les anciens 
mexicains. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., 
pp. 495-503. 

Concludes that the number 5 sym- 
bolized at the same time both the 
Sun and Venus in the double per- 
sonality of Nanauatzin-Tlauizcal- 
pantecutli, the passage from one life 
to another through death, and the 
light-dark quality of the universe. 

1955a Comment vivaient les Azteques. 
R. Paris, 62:31-48. 

Some outstanding characteristics of 
the Aztecs, inferred from native 

1955b La vie quotidienne des Azteques, 
a la veille de la conquete espagn- 
ole. Paris, Hachette. 

Ethnology of the Aztecs at the time 
of the conquest, largely as described 
in native codices and early histories. 

Spence, Lewis 

1954 Folklore of the Popol Vuh. Pro. 
30th Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 50-53. 

Old World analogies with the myth- 
ological events and religious ideas 
in this Quiche bible. 

Spinden, Herbert J. 

1948a Chorotegan influences in western 
Mexico. In El Occidente de Me- 
xico, pp. 34-35. 

Certain western Mexican motifs re- 
flect Chorotegan influence set in 
motion as a counter current to a 
southern movement of Mexicans in 
Toltec times. 

1948b New light on Quetzalcoatl. Acts 
Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 505-12. 

, Uses the 489384 correlation equation 
to interpret certain Maya inscrip- 
tions as recording Venus positions 
symbolic of Quetzalcoatl anniver- 

and the elec- 
In Homenaje 

1951 Maya astronomy 
tronic calculator 
Caso, pp. 343-51. 

Mathematical-astronomical achieve- 
ments of the Maya, with specula- 
tions on the role these played in the 
development of Maya culture. 
Stresses the planetary calendars and 
how these engaged with other nam- 
ing and numbering sequences. Ends 
with a plea for more international 
cooperation in this research. 



1957 Maya art and civilization. Indian 
Hills, Colo., Falcon's Wing Press. 

The first part is an offset reproduc- 
tion of his Mem. Peabody Mus. 
(1913); the second is an almost ver- 
batim edition of his Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Handbook (1928). 

Stephens, John Lloyd 

1949 Incidents of travel in Central 
America, Chiapas, and Yucatan. 
Edited with an introduction and 
notes by Richard L. Predmore. 
Rutgers U. Press. 

Attractive new edition of this 
famous work. Although the repro- 
ductions of Catherwood's drawings 
are not as effective as in the early 
editions, the binding, stock, and gen- 
eral format are superior. 

Stern, Theodore 

1950 The rubber-ball games of the 
Americas. Am. Ethnol. Soc, 
Monogr. 17. 

Reviews the types of ball, the pat- 
tern of play, types of court, values 
involved, and their distribution, 
concluding that indications favor a 
"circum-Caribbean" origin although 
this can not be proved. Few ar- 
chaeological data are used in this 
ethnographic study. 

1954 A note on Rouse's "The Circum- 
Caribbean theory, an archeologi- 
cal test," with a reply by Rouse. 
Am. Anthr., 56: 106-08. 

Morr regarding Stern's belief that 
the Hall game originated in the up- 
per Orinoco, rather than in Middle 
Amerits or the Antilles. 

Stewart, Dorothy N. 

1952 Geometric implications in con- 
struction of the Caracol: Greek 
measures in Maya architecture. 
Palacio, 59: 163-74. 

Believes the so-called Pythagorean 
proportions, the "golden section" of 
the Greeks, was known and em- 
ployed by Maya builders, either 
through their "innate ability" or 
through Asiatic instructors. The 
author's concepts of racial instincts 
and her evidence for a 1.618 con- 
stant in Maya building are uncon- 

Stewart, T. D. 

See De Terra, Helmut, Javier Romero, 
and , 1949. 

Stirling, Matthew W. 

1949a Exploring the past in Panama. N. 
Geog. Mag.. 95:373-400. 

Historical and archaeological back- 
ground and interesting general ac- 
count of the National Geographic 
Society — Smithsonian Institution 
excavations on the Pacific coast of 
Panama. Excellent illustrations. 

1949b The importance of Sito Conte. 
Arn. Anthr., 51:514-17. 

Consists chiefly of abstracts of Loth- 
rop's results as described in his two 
magnificent volumes on Code and 
central Panama, plus preliminary 
results of Stirling's investigations at 

1949c Sixty-fifth annual report of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. 

The National Geographic Society — 
Smithsonian Institution expedition 
to Panama. 

1950 Sixty-sixth annual report of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. 

Nofices of the excavations at Utive 
in the province of Panama, at Bar- 
riles and Palo Santo in the province 
of Chiriqui, and at three sites be- 
tween Santiago and Sona Veraguas. 

1951 Sixty-seventh annual report of 
the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy. Washington, Smithsonian 

Report of activities for 1949, in- 
cluding archaeological cind archival 
research in Middle America. 

1954 Seventieth annual report of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. 

Archaeological investigations in 
Panama and the Olmec area of 

1955 Stone monuments of the Rio Chi- 
quito, Veracruz, Mexico. Bureau 
Am. Ethn., B. 157, Anthr. Paper 

Colossal stone heads and other im- 
portant sculptures in an area of 
"Olmec-type" remains. Includes 26 
pages of photographs. 

1957a An archaeological reconnaissance 
in southeastern Mexico. Bureau 
Am. Ethn., B. 164, pp. 213-40. 

Sites from the Tonala River east- 
ward to the Laguna de Terminos and 
the Candelario River. Illustrated. 



1957b Monumentos de piedra de Rio 
Chiquito, Veracruz, Mexico. Pal. 
Horn., 4:9-28. 

Illustrated Spanish version of his 

Stoddard, Theodore L. 

See Willey, Gordon R., and 


Stone, Doris 

1948 The basic cultures of Central 
America. HSAI, 4: 169-93. 

Distribution of the so-called "Q- 
traits" in Central America, plus 
other archaeological features which 
the author considers basic Central 
American traits. 

1949 Los grupos mexicanos en la Amer- 
ica Central y su importancia. 
Antr. Hist. Guat., 1:43-47. 

Summary of linguistic and historical 
data on groups of Mexican affilia- 
tion in Central America, with some 
archaeological evidences. Notes the 
only concentration of these groups 
on the Pacific coast. 

1951a Una definicion de dos culturas 
distintas vistas en la antropologia 
de la America Central. In Home- 
naje Caso, pp. 353-61. 

At the time of the Spanish conquest, 
there were two fundamental cul- 
tures in Central America, one of 
northern parentage, one of southern. 
In late prehistoric times the former 
was part of a process of Mexicani- 
zation. Distinguishing characteristics 
were chiefly non-material. Northern 
economy was based on a maize culti- 
vation, with commerce, markets, a 
hierarchy of gods, and human sacri- 
. fice. The southern had matrilineal 

clans segregated by houses, lacked 
markets and village social life, and 
were dependent on cereals {granos) , 
tubers, and starch products (almi- 

1951b Orfebreria pre-colombina de Cos- 
ta Rica. San Jose, U. Costa Rica, 
Mus. Nac. 

A well-illustrated and useful cata- 
logue of gold objects in the museum. 
The introduction describes tech- 
niques of gold-working and types 
of ornament and implements, and 
discusses Costa Rica's role in the 
diffusion of these traits. 

1956 Data of maize in Talamanca, Costa 
Rica: an hypothesis. J. Soc. 
Am., 45: 189-94. 

Suggests that maize was introduced 
to aboriginal Talamanca by Mexi- 
can tribes, and that climatic con- 
ditions there were unfavorable to 
its cultivation and storage. 

1957 The archaeology of central and 
southern Honduras. Papers Pea- 
body Mus., vol. 49, no. 3. 
Isolates three main culture trends 
by regions and examines evidences 
for Mayan, Central American, Mexi- 
can, and South American relation- 

, AND Carlos Balser 

1957 Grinding stones and mullers of 
Costa Rica. J. Soc. Am., 46: 165-79. 
The authors see two trends revealed: 
a northern maize economy and a 
southern tuber and palm fruit 

Stresser-Pean, Guy 

1948 Les origines du volador et du 
com,elagatoazte. Acts Intl. Cong. 
Am., pp. 327-34. 

Attributes the volador ceremony to 
the Toltecs and interprets the sym- 
bolism of both the volador and the 
comelagatoazte dance. 2 plates. 

1952-53 Les nahuas du sud de la Haus- 
teca et I'ancienne extension meri- 
dionale des huasteques. R. Mex. 
Estud. Antr., 13:287-90. 

Advances the hypothesis that Na- 
huatl and Huastec cultures merged 
in southern Huasteca. 

Stromsvik, Gustav 

1948-55 Annual report on excavations 
in Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, 
Quintana Roo, Yucatan. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Year Books 47-54. 

1950 Las ruinas de Asuncion Mita. In- 
forme de su reconocimiento. Antr. 
Hist. Guat., 2:23-29. 

Preliminary survey occasioned by 
destruction in 1949 of important 
units of this ruin by the new Roose- 
velt highway. Records details of 
structures already damaged or 
threatened, with notes on pottery 
and other artifacts, indicating occu- 
pation in Formative, Classic, and 
protohistoric periods. 

1952 The ball courts at Copan, with 
notes on courts at La Union, Qui- 
rigua, San Pedro Pinula, and 
Asuncion Mita. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 596, Contrib. 55. 

Profusely illustrated with plans, 
sections, photographs, and a Pros- 
kouriakoff restoration. 

1953 A portal vault and temple at 
Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 8. 

Details of construction, and a sum- 
mary of the pottery types found. 



1956 Exploration of the cave of Dzab- 
na, Tecoh, Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Kept. 35. 

Complex of caverns contained a 
wooden statuette, mushroom stone, 
milling stones, and pottery. 

, H. E. D. Pollock, and Heinrich 


1955 Exploration in Quintana Roo. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 

Notes, maps, sketches, and photos. 

See Pollock, H. E. D., and , 1953. 

Strong, William Duncan 

1948a The archeology of Costa Rica and 
Nicaragua. HSAI, 4: 121-42. 

Excellent digest of Lothrop's earlier 
volumes on this region, with certain 
new findings added. Archaeological 
and tribal correlations are discussed. 

1948b The archeology of Honduras. 
HSAI, 4: 69-120. 

Excellent, concise but detailed sum- 
mary, well illustrated. Contains sec- 
tions of discussion and the most 
up-to-date chronological charts of 
Honduran culture sequences. 

Swan, Michael 

1954 Temples of the Sun and Moon: a 
Mexican journey. London, Cape. 
Travel book, with very readable 
nontechnical text and fine photogra- 
phic reproductions. 

Swanger, J. L., AND W. J. Mayer-Oakes 

1952 A fluted point from Costa Rica. 
Am. Antiq., 17:264-65. 

Evidence of a palaeo-Indian culture 
in Costa Rica. 

Tabbush, Yvonne 

1957a Bonampak, the "painted walls" of 
the Maya. UNESCO Courier, 10: 

Another description of this famous 

site and its murals. 

1957b Monumentos de piedra de Rio 
Chiquito, Veracruz, Mexico. Pal. 
Horn., 4:928. 

Illustrated Spanish version of the 
1955 Bureau of American Ethnology 

Tax, Sol (ed.) 

1951 The civilizations of ancient Amer- 
ica. Selected papers of the 29th 
Intl. Cong. Am. (New York, 1949). 

The first of three volumes. 

Taylor, Herbert C, Jr. 

1948 An archaeological reconnaissance 
in northern Coahuila. B. Texas 
Archaeol. Paleon. Soc, 19:74-87. 

Survey of the pictographic area of 
the Pecos River Focus south of the 
Rio Grande. 3 illustrations. 

Tejeda F., Antonio 

1948 Bonampak expedition. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Year Book 47, pp. 213- 

On the ancient media, techniques, 
general subject matter, and artistic 
qualities of the murals, with notes 
on the copying work accomplished 
by the expedition. See Ruppert, 
ITiompson and Protskouriakoff, 1955. 

SzECSY, Janos de 

1953 Investigaciones ex Iximche. Hu- 
manidades, 1:1-15. 

Report on preliminary archaeologi- 
cal study of the capital of the an- 
cient Cakchiquel kingdom. 

Szekely, Edmond Bordeaux 

1954 La filosofia del Mexico antiguo. 
Tecate, Mexico, Ediciones de la 
Academia de Filosofia. 

The second volume is a sort of 
dictionary of certain glyphs, sym- 
bols, and motifs found in the 
codices, arranged in groups relative 
to the author's ideas of native sym- 

Temple, Charles R. 

See Proskouriakoff. 

Tatiana, and 

Termer, Franz 

1948 Recit d'un voyage archeologique 
dans le sud-est de la Republique 
de Guatemala. Acts Intl. Cong. 
Am,, pp. 512-28. 

Preliminary report on ruins and 
sculptures of the zone between Rio 
Michatoya and Rio Paz. 3 plates. 

1951a The density of population in the 
southern and northern Maya em- 
pires as an archeological and geo- 



graphical problem. In Tax, 1951, 
pp. 101-07. 

Population of the Peninsula of Yuca- 
tan in post-Classic times is estimated 
at 500,000; that of the Classic south- 
ern area at 300,000 (one quarter of 
these connected with sacerdotal 

1951b Die Frage nach der Herkunft des 
Wassers auf dem Penol de Tetzco- 
tzinco. In Homenaje Caso, pp. 363- 

Historical and geographical evidence 
leads Termer to the conclusion that 
the source of water for Tezcotzinco 
was on the Metecatl ridge itself, ap- 
parently on its northern peak. 

1951c Die "Hiihner" der Azteken. Zeit. 
Ethn., 76:205-15. 

The 16th- to 18-century observers 
reported domestic fowl in Middle 
America when actually they meant 
turkeys. Author finds no evidence 
for pre-Columbian fowls there, or 
for fowls introduced via the Paci- 
fic from southern Asia. 

1952 Die Mayaforschung. Leipzig, 
Deutsche Akademie der Natur- 
forscher (Nova acta leopoldina, 
Abhandlungen, n.s., vol. 15, no. 

Fully documented review of the his- 
tory of Maya research, including 
geography, linguistics, investigations 
of lowland and highland ruins, 
epigraphy, ethnography, and broad- 
er problems of origin, development, 
and relationships. Map of Maya sites 
and 16 pages of illustrations. 

1953 Die Hochkultur der Maya und 
ihre Erforschung durch die mod- 
erne Amerikanistik. Universitas 
(Stuttgart), 8: 149-59. 

Reviews highlights of Mayan civi- 
lization, the various hypotheses that 
are still being examined, and the 
correlation problem. 

1955 Mittelamerikanische Museen. Zeit. 
Ethn., 80:38-58. 

Account of leading anthropological 
museums in Central America, with 
photos of selected exhibits. 

1957 Der Hund bei den Kulturvolkern 
Altamerikas. Zeit. Ethn., 32: 1-57. 

The dog in ancient Mesoamerican 
and Andean ceramic effigies, vase 
painting, and other media. Data on 
early references to dogs, and ar- 
chaeological specimens. 

Thomas, Charles E. 

1957? A study of Puuc culture. Pri- 
vately printed, n. d. (probably 
1957). 11 pp. 

Believes that Toltec culture influ- 
enced Puuc centers, especially 
Uxmal, in the late Classic period. 
Sees evidence of decline, seculariza- 
tion, and moral corruption in its art 
and architecture. 

Thompson, Donald E. 

1955 An altar and platform at Maya- 
pan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 28. 

Excavations in a small compact cere- 
monial group. 

— , AND J. Eric S. Thompson 

1955 A noble's residence and its de- 
pendencies at Mayapan. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 25. 

Interesting deductions and specula- 
tions regarding an assemblage of 
structures. The function of the fam- 
ily oratory in Maya life is discussed. 

See Chowning, Ann, and 

Thompson, J. Eric S. 


1948 An archaeological reconnaisance 
in the Cotzumalhuapa region, Es- 
cuintla, Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 574, Contrib. 44. 

Excellent archaeological study of the 
Pacific coastal slope of Guatemala, 
its geography, ethnic background, 
sculptures, architecture, and arti- 
facts. Strong evidence for assigning 
the important Cotzumalhuapan 
sculpture to the Late Classic period, 
with possible beginnings in the 
Early Classic. 63 figures. 

1949a Canoes and navigation of the 
Maya and their neighbors. J. Royal 
Anthr. Inst., 79:69-78. 

Evidence from archaeological and 
documentary sources indicates a 
greater mastery of navigation than 
hitherto supposed, including use of 
sails, raised gunwales, possibly the 
double canoe with sail, crotch-head- 
ed paddle, calabash and reed rafts, 

1949b Tentativa de reconocimiento en el 
area maya meridional. Antr. Hist. 
Guat., 1: 23-48. 

Spanish translation of Thompson's 
excellent and still useful "trial sur- 
vey" published in Am. Antiq., 1943. 



1949-50 La inscripcion jeroglifica de ta- 
blero de El Palacio, Palenque. A. 
Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 4:61-68. 

Two examples of the number 11. 
Palenque utilized the lunar system 
of measuring time. 

1950a Maya hieroglyphic writing. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Pub. 589. 

The importance of this definitive 
"introduction" of Maya hieroglyphic 
writing cannot be overemphasized. 
It is the best and most authoritative 
treatment yet published, with new 
approaches and new interpretations. 
After an excellent outline of Maya 
civilization and history and the 
sources of glyphic material, there 
are 12 chapters and 5 appendices 
treating of the principles of Maya 
glyphic writing, the 260-day cycle 
and 365-day year, methods of rec- 
ording numbers, the Long Count, 
distance numbers, period endings, 
anniversaries, and katun counts, 
ritualistic and astronomical cycles, 
the moon, soulless mechanisms and 
magical formulae, aids to decipher- 
ment, interpretation, divinatory al- 
manacs, the correlation problem, de- 
terminants, and many other sub- 
jects. A monumental publication. 

1950b Rubber in America before 1492. 
Boston, Godfrey L. Cabot, Inc. 

Brief account of the production and 
uses of rubber in prehistoric 

1951a Aquatic symbols common to vari- 
ous centers of the Classic period 
in Meso-America. In Tax, 1951, pp. 

Three symbols of glyphic elements 
associated with water or rain gods, 
occurring in various Classic period 
centers, emphasize the underlying 
unity of the Classic cultures and are 
believed to have been derived from 
a common ancestral ("Middle per- 
iod") culture. 

1951b The Itza of Tayasal, Peten. In 
Homenaje Caso, pp. 389-400. 

Assembles the ethnographical data 
on the Itza at the time of their estab- 
lishment in the Peten, from early 
sources such as Avendafio, Cogo- 
Uudo and Fuensalida, Cano, Cortes, 
Bernal Diaz, and secondary sources. 
Isolates the Mexican traits in their 

1951-57 Annual report on hieroglyphic 
research. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Year Books 50-56. 

1952 The introduction of Puuc style of 
dating at Yaxchilan. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Note 110. 

Double dating on separate stelae to 
record the intrusion of style of 
dating which yields a month coeffi- 
cient or a Calendar Round date one 
less than the normal system. This 
shift to the Puuc system was short- 

1953 A. stela at San Lorenzo, southeast- 
ern Campeche. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 115. 

A hieroglyphic monument in an 
area where Peten and Rio Bee 
architectural styles interlock. Prob- 
ably 10 Ahau 8 Muan. 

1954a El area maya norte. Yon, 3:3-35. 

A Spanish revised edition of the use- 
ful 1945 article in Am. Antiq. Text 
brought up to date and many excel- 
lent and only recently available 
drawings and photographs added. 

1954b The character of the Maya. Pro. 
30th Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 36-40. 

Mayan personality and character 
traits inferred from archaeological 
remains. Chief among them was 

1954c Memoranda on some dates at Pa- 
lenque, Chiapas. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 120. 

Further attempts to piece together 
the badly scattered and fragmentary 
Palenque inscriptions. 

1954d A presumed residence of the no- 
bility at Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Cur. Kept. 19. 

Architectural data, caches, burials, 
and artifacts described, plus specu- 
lations regarding the structure's use 
and history. Evidence for the Xipe 
Totec cult in Yucatan. 

1954e The rise and fall of Maya civiliza- 
tion. Oklahoma Press. 

Thoughtful and entertaining study 
of the Maya, one of the few general 
works on this subject written by an 
authority on Middle American 
archaeology. Well illustrated and 
certainly the best and most authen- 
tic introduction that we have. 

1955 Mayapan, ultima etapa de una 
civilizacion moribunda, la maya. 
A. Intl. Cong. Am., 2:667-72. 

Evidences for grave decadence dur- 
ing last centuries of Maya prehis- 



1956a Chronological decipherments from 
Uaxactun, Naranjo, and Ixlu, Pe- 
ten. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Note 

Re-reading of a difficult inscription 
helps close a gap in recorded Uaxac- 
tun dates. New decipherments of 
other monuments clarify their asso- 
ciated lunar readings or altar prox- 
1956b Notes on the use of cacao in Mid- 
dle America. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Note 128. 

Cacao as currency and tribute, its 
representations in archaeology, its 
ritualistic importance, medicinal 
properties, and its part in cultural 
development. Exhaustive bibliog- 

1957 Deities portrayed on censers at 
Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cm-. Kept. 40. 

Description of effigy censers, their 
function, chronological and geo- 
graphical placement, identification 
of deities represented. Five are of 
non-Maya origin. The Xipe and 
Tlazolteotl cults may have been pri- 
marily the interest of leading fami- 
lies wishing to preserve their Mexi- 
can connections. Chac, the most im- 
portant Maya deity, appears on rela- 
tively few censers. Resentment 
against Mexican cults may have led 
to the revolt and fall of Mayapan. 
The great number of censers indi- 
cates the rise of secular forces at the 
expense of sacerdotal control. 

See Ruppert, Karl, , and Tatiana 

Proskouriakoff, 1955; Thompson, 
Donald E. and , 1955. 

Thompson, Nora B. 

1948 Algunos manuscritos guatemalte- 
cos en Filadelfia. A. Soc. Geog. 
Hist. Guat., 23: 3-10. 

Descriptive catalog of 11 17th- and 
18-century manuscripts, 10 of them 
in Cakchiquel and one in Cholti, in 
the collections of the American 
Philosophical Society. 

Thompson, Raymond H. 

1950-52 Annual report on ceramic stud- 
ies. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year 
Books 49-51. 

Thurnwald, Richard 

1951 The role of political organization 
in the development of man, with 
suggested applications in the New 
World. In Tax, 1951, pp. 280-84. 
Proposes that New World social 
stratification, as manifested for ex- 
ample in Peru and Mexico, and god- 
king concepts as in Inca culture, 
arose following the arrival of new 
culture-bearers from Asia. 

TiBON, Gautier 

1948 Le nom mexicain du dindon et ses 
rapports avec la mythologie na- 
huatl. Acts Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 

Derives the Nahuatl word for "tur- 
key" from that for the god of mon- 
sters, Xolotl. 

Tlatelolco . . . 

1948 Tlatelolco a traves de los tiempos: 
X. Mem. Acad. Mex. Hist., 7:109- 

Group of articles in a long series 
written by historians, linguists, and 
archaeologists concentrating on a 
single locality in Mexico. See indi- 
vidual authors. 

1950 Ibid., XI. Mem. Acad. Mex. Hist., 

See individual authors. 

ToscANO, Salvador 

1947 Los murales de Bonampak. R. 
Mex. Estud. Antr., 9:5-9. 

Photographs, color reproductions, 
and commentary. 

1948 Piramides de Mexico. Mexico, 
Editorial de Arte (Col. Anahuac, 
Arte Mexicano, no. 10). 

Small handbook of architecture with 
excellent photographs and some 
drawings. Contains a brief commen- 
tary in four languages. 

1949 Magia, religion y adorno en el arte 
del antiguo Mexico. Cuad. Am., 
44: 163-75. 

Trends in Mexican art, by prehis- 
toric epochs. 

1952 Arte precolombino de Mexico y 
de la America Central. Segunda 
edicion. Inst. Inv. Estet. 

Large and lavishly illustrated 
volume describing regional styles in 
architecture, sculpture, ceramics, 
mosaics, featherwork, and metal- 

Tozzer, Alfred M. 

1957 Chichen Itza and its cenote of sac- 
rifice: a comparative study of 
contemporaneous Maya and Tol- 
tec. Mem.. Peahody Mus., vols. 11, 

A monumental work covering the 
period of Chichen Itza's contact with 
Mexico. Contains an outline of Maya 
archaeology, legendary and archaeo- 



logical history of Chichen Itza, a 
comparative archaeological study 
with several other sites and areas, 
Toltec ethnology, the Cenote of 
Sacrifice and sacrifical rituals, and 
trade. Numerous line drawings of 
architecture and artifacts. 26 trait 
list tables, 23 pages of notes, and an 
exhaustive bibliography. Posthu- 
mously published, this work is an- 
other fine memorial to Tozzer's 

Trik, Aubrey S. 

See Woodbury, Richard B., and 


1948a Algo mas sobre el "Codice de Co- 
millas." R. Indias, ano 9, no. 35, 
pp. 113-16. 

Further description of the Lienzo de 
Tlaxcala and falsified copies there- 

1948b El codice mexicano postcortesiano 
del Museo de America de Madrid. 
Acts Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 549-56. 
Preliminary description of a Mexi- 
can pictorial codex of 1553. 

1948c Nueve recadros del Lienzo de 
Tlaxcala en Espana. Acts Intl. 
Cong. Am., pp. 557-58. 

Note on the so-called missing frag- 
ments of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, 
later proved to be a fake (see Car- 
eer, 1950). 


Ulving, Tor 

1955 A new decipherment of the Maya 
glyphs. Ethnos, 20:152-58. 

Useful summary of the recent papers 
by Jurij Valentinovie Knorozov, 
whose works on the decipherment 
of Mayan hieroglphs have been pub- 
licized but not often read by modern 
scholars. This article explains the 
principle on which Knorozov based 
his studies of Maya glyphs, and con- 
denses the findings of his 1955 paper. 
Ulving finds Knorozov's approach 
and method to be sound and feels 
that he must be on the right track. 

Uribe DE Fernandez de Cordoba, Susana 

1954-55 Las ideas morales y el derecho 

penal entre algunos pueblos pre- 

hispanicos del Valle de Mexico. 

A. Mex. Estud. Antr., 14:373-76. 

Very brief summary, undocumented. 

Valle, Rafael Heliodoro 

1951 John Lloyd Stephens y su libro 
extraordinario. A. Soc. Geog. Hist. 
Guat, 25:262-75. 

Review of the activities and some of 
the writings (Incidents of Travel in 
Central America, Chiapas, and Yu- 
catan) of Stephens, with some Ste- 
phens correspondence translated in- 
to Spanish. 

Vargas Castelazo, Manuel 

1954-55 La patologia y la medicina en- 
tre los mexica. R. Mex. Estud. 
Antr., 14:119-43. 

Gods of medicine, knowledge erf 
anatomy and physiology, teaching 
and practice of medicine, external 
pathology and surgery, diseases of 
the sensory organs, obstetrics. 

Vela, David 

1950 Noticias del maiz. Su origen, dis- 
tribucion y relaciones con las cul- 
turas indigenas de America. Antr. 
Hist. Giiat., 2:30-42. 

History of research on this topic, 
from about 1900 to 1943 (Mangels- 
dorf and Reeves). 


1951 Memoria sintetica. Veracruz, De- 
partamento de Antropologia, Go- 
bierno del Estado. 

Short introduction to the physical 
anthropology, linguistics, ethnology, 
archaeology, social anthropology, 
museums, and archives of Veracruz. 

Verrill, a. Hyatt, and Ruth Verrill 
1953 America's ancient civilizations. 
New York, Putnam. 

An entertaining but irritatingly im- 
modest book. There is probably a 
place in our literature for the spec- 
tacular adventure-type books on 
Eirchaeology, but it is unfortunate 
that commercial publishers will not 
also insist that they be authentic 
and accurate. 

Verrill, Ruth 
■See Verrill, A. Hyatt, and 


Villagra Caleti, Agustin 

1949 Bonampak, la ciudad de los muros 
pintados. Nota preliminar de Sal- 
vador Toscano. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., supp. to vol. 3. 

Description of the famous murals, 
with excellent illustrations, many 
of them in color. 



1951a Murales prehispanicos. Copia, 
restauracion y conservacion. In 
Homenaje Caso, pp. 421-26. 

Prehistoric techniques and materials 
used in mural painting, with notes 
on modern methods of reconstruc- 

1951b Las pinturas de Atetelco en Teo- 
tihuacan. Cuad. Am., 55:153-62. 
Description and brief interpretation, 
with three large color plates and 
other illustrations. 

1951c Teotihuacan, sus pinturas mura- 
les. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 5:67- 
The great murals of Tepantitla, 
Tetitla, Atetelco, Zacuala, and other 
sites. Illustrations include a large 
folding color plate. 

1952a Expedicion de 1951 a Bonampak. 
Tlatoani, 1:51-56. 

Further notes on this important site, 
taken during a visit for the purposes 
of cleaning and preventing further 

1952b Trabajos realizados en Teotihua- 
can: 1952. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist., 

Explorations in Tetitla and Atetelco. 

Illustrated, including a color plate 

of murals. 

Vinton, Kenneth W. 

1951a New archaeological site in Pan- 
ama. Sci. Monthly, 73:122-23. 
A graveyard at Venado Beach said 
to be similar to that of Code. 

1951b Unusual petrification in tropical 
Panama. Sci. Monthly, 72:397-400. 
In spite of tropical conditions, bones 
from Indian graves of certain areas 
in Panama are well preserved by a 
high concentration of calcium bicar- 
bonate in soil water passing through 
the graves. 

Von Hagen, Victor Wolfgang 

1950a The forgotten Catherwood. Art 
News, 48:30-32, 62-63. 

Modern photographs of Maya ruins 
compared with Catherwood's draw- 
ings of the 1840's with text extracts 
from his 1950b. 

1950b Frederick Catherwood Arch't. In- 
troduction by Aldous Huxley. Ox- 
ford U. Press, New York. 

"Professionally speaking," says the 
introduction, "Catherwood belongs 
to a species — the artist-archaeologist 
— which is all but extinct." He is 
best known for his drawings of 
Maya ruins, which illustrate John 
Lloyd Stephens' books of travel in 
Central America. 

VoN Winning, Hasso 

1948 The Teotihuacan owl-and-weapon 
symbol and its association with 
"Serpent Head X" at Kaminal- 
juyu. Am. Antiq., 14:129-32. 

Interpretation of the symbolism on 
a decorated vessel of Kaminaljuyu, 
with a comparative cross-regional 
study of the elements involved. 

1949a Shell designs on Teotihuacan pot- 
tery. Mex. Antig. 7:126-53. 

Describes Classic and post-Classic 
Teotihuacan techniques of repre- 
senting shells on pottery. They prob- 
ably symbolized water and possibly 
were part of the ritual in which gods 
were petitioned for water. 

1949b Spindle-whorl from Culhuacan, 
Mexico, showing deity emerging 
from conch-shell. Masterkey, 23: 

Includes some comparative material 
on representations of conch shells 
and on spindle-whorl types. 

1949c Teotihuacan figurine heads with 
one eye intentionally patched. 
Masterkey, 23:133-34. 

Interesting vajiation in Mexican 
clay and stone sculpture, with specu- 
lations as to its significance. 

1951 Another wheeled animal figtuine 
from Mexico. Masterkey, 25:88-89. 
Specimen described lacks only 
wheels and axle, with indications 
that the latter was held in place 
with an adhesive. 

1953 A decorated vessel support from 
Acapulco, Mexico. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Note 113. 

Stamped specimen of long hollow 
slab leg, characteristic of the Aca- 
pulco area, with possible Teotihua- 
can affiliations. 

1955 A two-part effigy from the Valley 
of Mexico. Mex. Antig., 8:66-75. 

Description and comparative ma- 

1956 Offerings from a burial mound in 
coastal Nayarit, Mexico. Master- 
key, 30:157-70. 

Pottery, alabaster, and copper from 
a mound northwest of Tepic. Illu- 
strated and described, with compara- 
tive notes. 

1957 Wind god on a Mexican stone re- 
lief. Masterkey, 31:112-15. 

Late Aztec Ehecatl column describ- 
ed and interpreted. 




Wallis, Ethel Emilia 

1954-55 Toponimia otomi del Valle del 
Mezquital. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 
14: 153-60. 

Wassen, Henry 

1949 Some archaeological observa- 
tions from Boquete, Chiriqui, Pan- 
ama. Etn. Stud., 16:145-92. 

Description of the contents of three 
graves and miscellaneous materials 
from the Rio Caldera region. 37 

Wauchope, Robert 

1948a Clay floor basins at Zacualpa in 
highland Guatemala. Palacio, 55: 

Resemblances between Guatemala 
and Arizona architectural features. 

1948b Excavations at Zacualpa, Guate- 
mala. Middle Am. Research Inst., 
Pub. 14. 

Socio-archaeological analysis of 
documentary, archaeological, and 
environmental data and their bear- 
ing on historical reconstruction, the 
calendar correlation problem, and 
certain general anthropological con- 
cepts. Based on excavations for Car- 
negie Institution of Washington. 
Three appendices, one by A. V. 
Kidder and one in collaboration with 
E. B. Ricketson. 

1948c The Middle American ball game 
in 1750. Palacio, 55:299-301. 

Landivar's account of the game with 
a rubber ball, as it was played in 
Mexico in the mid-18th century. 

1948d Surface collection at Chiche, 
Guatemala. Middle Am. Research 
Rec, 1:123-50. 

Comparative study and statistical 
analysis of Chiche pottery, showing 
it to be a Classic period city. 36 

1948e Tulane archaeological expedition 
to Guatemala. Palacio, 55:16-18. 

Preliminary account of excavations 
at Zacualpa and Utatlsin. 

1949a Las edades de Utatlan e Iximche. 
Antr. Hist. Guat., 1:10-22. 

Coordination of Quiche and Cakchi- 
quel reigns in the Popol Vuh and 
Cakchiquel Annals and related 
archaeology; estimates Quiche capi- 
tal moved to Utatlan about 1443, 
Iximche founded about 1463. 

1949b Extracts from report to the presi- 
dent of Tulane University for the 
period July 1, 1946-July 1, 1948. 
Middle Am. Research Inst., Misc. 
Ser., no. 6. 

Report of the Institute's activities 
for a two-year period, with pre- 
liminary results of the archaeologi- 
cal excavations at Zacualpa and 
Utatlan, Guatemala. 

1950 A tentative sequence of pre-Clas- 
sic ceramics in Middle America. 
Middle Am. Research Rec, 1:211- 

Subdivides the Formative period 
into stages and assigns pre-Classic 
pottery types to them. Individual 
discussion of wares and site phases 
is followed by remarks and specu- 
lations on Formative period culture. 

1954 Implications of radiocarbon dates 
from Middle and South America. 
Middle Am. Research Rec, 2: 17- 

Implications of the C14 dates rela- 
tive to the calendar correlation ques- 
tion and the apparently parallel 
rise of high civilizations in Meso- 
america and the Andes. 

1955 Las fechas de carbon radioactivo 
y la arqueologia americana. Cien. 
Sac, 6: 161-79 . 

Spanish edition of his 1954. 

Weber, Richard 

1950 Neue Untersuchungen zum Korre- 
lationsproblem der Mayazeitrech- 
nung. Zeit. Ethn., 75:90-102. 

A lengthy summary in German of 
the Makemson correlation as pre- 
sented in her The Maya correlation 
problem (Vassar College Observa- 
tory, Pub. 5). 

1952 Tafel zur Umrechnung von Maya- 
Daten. Zeit. Ethn., 77:251-53. 

Tables for the translation of Maya 
Long Count dates to Julian dates 
according to the 584285 correlation. 

Weiant, C. W. 

1952 Reply to Middle Tres Zapotes and 
the pre-Classic ceramic sequence. 
Am. Antiq., 18:57-59. 

Further clarification of the Tres 
Zapotes ceramic sequence (see 
Drucker, 1952b). 



Weitlaner, R. J. 

1948 Exploracion arqueologica en Gue- 
rrero. In El Occidente de Mexico, 
pp. 77-85. 

Notes on the archaeology by sites, 
with a summary on chronology. 

, AND Carlo Antonio Castro 

1953 El lienzo de Tlacoatzintepec. Yan, 

Description of the original of the 
postconquest cotton woven map of 
San Juan Tlacoatzintepec and sur- 
rounding area, pointing out differ- 
ences between it and a copy made 
in 1892. 

Weitzel, R. B. 

1948 An astronomical test of Caso's 
correlation. Am. Antiq., 13:323. 

Examines modern astronomical 
tables to see whether an eclipse was 
visible in the Valley of Mexico on 
the date Caso's correlation assigns 
to an Aztec year for which an 
eclipse was noted in ancient times. 

1949 The Hispanicized haab of Yuca- 
tan. Adams Printing Co., Wash- 

Brief description of how the Span- 
iards equated their calendar with 
Yucatecan uinal dates. 

1950 Mexican manuscripts and solar 
eclipses. R. Mex. Estud. Antr., 11: 

Tests the Spinden, Caso, and "Re- 
vised" correlations of Aztec and 
European calendars by means of 
solar eclipse data in three Nahuatl 
codices. See also Caso, 1950a. 

West, Robert C, and Pedro Armillas 

1950 Las chinampas de Mexico. Cuad. 
Am., 50:165-82. 

The so-called "floating gardens" of 
Mexico, including their preconquest 

Westheim, Paul 

1956 La escultura del Mexico antiguo. 
U. Nac. Autonoma Mex. 

A 29-page introduction analyzes the 
cultural background of ancient 
Mexican art, stressing its symbolic 
rather than representational nature. 
Many fine photographic illustra- 

Whitaker, Thomas W., Hugh C. Cutler, 
AND Richard S. MacNeish 

1957 Cucurbit materials from three 
caves near Ocampo, Tamaulipas. 
Am. Antiq., 22:352-58. 

Oldest specimens yet recorded for 
several species found in a sequence 
of eight cultural stages. 

WiCKE, Charles R. 

1956 Los murales de Tepantitla y el 
arte campesino. A. Inst. Nac. Antr. 
Hist., 8:117-22. 

Distinguishes betv/een primitive, 
rural, and cult art, and sees certain 
Teotihuacan III figurines as rural 
expressions of gods and concepts 
depicted in Tepantitla murals. 

WiLLCox, Horace 

1954 Removal and restoration of the 
monuments of Caracol. B. U. Mus., 

Interesting and instructive account 
of the problems and techniques in- 
volved in the removal and repair of 
heavy stone monuments and sculp- 
tures. Well illustrated. 

WiLLEY, Gordon R. 

1951 A preliminary report on the Mona- 
grillo culture of Panama. In Tax, 
1951, pp. 173-80. 

A new archaeological complex, the 
Monagrillo of Panama, appears to be 
Formative in type, sharing techno- 
logical characteristics with Forma- 
tive remains in Peru, Honduras, 
Mexico, and the southeast United 
States. Still greater resemblances, 
although still not close, are seen in 
some early Venezuelan pottery. 

1953 A pattern of diffusion-accultura- 
tion. SW. J. Anthr., 9:369-84. 

Patterns and function in three pre- 
historic cultural colonization case 
studies. A unique analysis of ar- 
chaeological data. 

1955 The interrelated rise of the native 
cultures of Middle and South 
America. In New Interpretations 
of Aboriginal American Culture 
History. 75th Anniversary Vol. 
Anthr. Soc. Wash., Washington. 
Intercontinental diffusion at suc- 
cessive stages or "time bands" of 
prehistory. Specific traits are dis- 
cussed and general conclusions 



1956a (ed.)- Prehistoric settlements pat- 
terns in the New World. Viking 
Fund Pub. Anthr., no. 23. 

The essays treating of Middle 
America are listed herein by 

1956b Problems concerning prehistoric 
settlement patterns in the Maya 
lowlands. In his 1956a, pp. 107-14. 

Reviews what little evidence is 
available on this highly important 

1956c The structure of ancient Maya so- 
ciety: evidence from the southern 
lowlands. Am. Anthr., 58:777-82. 

Village assemblages excavated in 
British Honduras suggest a prehis- 
toric network of theocratic stations 
and substations, all supported by a 
peasantry whose archaeological re- 
mains indicate they were reasonably 
prosperous and participated in a cul- 
tural tradition not markedly dif- 
ferent from their more urban con- 
temporaries. Willey believes the 
notion of a great schism between 
these classes has been overempha- 

— , AND William R. Bullard, Jr. 

1956 The Melhado site, a house mound 
group in British Honduras. Am. 
Antiq., 22:29-44. 

One of the very few thorough exca- 
vations of a small cluster of little 
mounds grouped around a pyramidal 
mound. Possibly a village or hamlet 
with local religious and political 
functions, occupied from Formative 
through Classic periods. 

— , , AND John B. Glass 

1955 The Maya community of prehis- 
toric times. Archaeology, 8:18-25. 

Discuss the nature of the prehistoric 
Maya community in the light of ex- 
cavations in the Belize Valley, 
British Honduras. 

— , AND Charles R. McGimsey 

1952 Archaeology in western Panama. 
Archaeology, 5:173-81. 

Archaeological explorations in the 
Parita Bay region, including excava- 
tions at the interesting Monagrillo 
shell mound. Excellent illustrations. 

1954 The Monagrillo culture of Pan- 
ama. With an appendix on ar- 
chaeological marine shells by 
Robert E. Greengo. Papers Pea- 
hody Mus., vol. 49, no. 2. 

Important report on presumably 
early shell mound remains and the 

related ceramic complex of Parita 
Bay, Panama. This is one of the 
first projects to fiU in some of the 
missing archaeological chronology 
of this region. 

, AND Theodore L. Stoddard 

1954 Cultural stratigraphy in Panama: 
a preliminary report on the Giron 
site. Am. Antiq., 19:332-43. 

Time-depth complexity within the 
Code area, demonstrating that the 
"culture areas" of Central America 
are now ready to be modified and 
further defined in terms of chron- 
ology. This report marks an im- 
portant stride in our progress 
toward understanding Central 
American prehistory. 

Williams, Howell 

1950 Nicaragua. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Year Book 49, pp. 198-200. 

Further discussion of the antiquity 
of the El Cauce footprints. 

1952 Geologic observations on the an- 
cient human footprints near Man- 
agua, Nicaragua. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. 596, Contrib. 52. 

Concludes that the footprints, as- 
sociated with bison, are 2,000-5,000 
years old. Illustrated. 

Wilson, Robert B. 

1953 Beekeeping in Mexico. Gleanings 
Bee Cult., 81:79-82, 143-46. 

Native Mexican customs connected 
with beekeeping, from prehistoric 

Winters, Howard D. 

1955a Excavation of a colonnaded hall 
at Mayapan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Cur. Rept. 3. 

Shrine contained altar and human 
effigy censers. Data on costumes. 

1955b Three serpent column temples 
and associated platforms at Maya- 
pan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. 
Rept. 32. 

Defines the basic, although not uni- 
form, type of architecture for Maya- 
pan serpent columns. 

1955c A vaulted temple at Mayapan. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Cur. Rept. 

Contained murals. 




1956 Aspects of the Maya culture. New 
York, North River Press. 

Superficial sketches of ancient 

Wolf, Eric R., and Angel Palerm 

1955 Irrigation in the old Acolhua do- 
main, Mexico. SW. J. Anthr., 11: 

Late prehistoric irrigation systems 
in a region here described as once 
a key area, later undergoing a cul- 
tural decline. 

See Armillas, Pedro, Angel Palerm, and 

, 1956; Palerm, Angel, and 

, 1954-55. 

Woodbury, Richard B. 

1948 Progress at Zaculeu, Guatemala. 
Am. Antiq., 14: 121-22. 

Fairly detailed review of the archi- 
tecture, graves, pottery, and other 
artifacts of the Early and Late 
Classic and post-Classic remains at 
this important highland site. 

Describes and interprets the ele- 
ments of this motif and concludes 
that it was an emblem especially of 
Itzamna or Quetzalcoatl, and that it 
was also a symbol of life, of good 
in opposition to evil, and a tree of 
knowledge. The Old World occur- 
rences of this motif are also men- 

Yeomans, William 

1954 The musical instruments of pre- 
Columbian Central America. Pro. 
30th Intl. Cong. Am., pp. 54-57. 

Inferred from codices, artifacts, and 
other archaeological remains. 

Yglesias, Ruben 

1953-54 Un apunte sobre las esferas 
liticas de Costa Rica. A Soc. Geog. 
Hist. Guat., 27:244-46. 

The author believes that the stone 
balls of Costa Rica were shaped by 
natural agencies, but used by the 
natives as rehgious symbols. 

AND Aubrey S. Trik 

1953 The ruins of Zaculeu, Guatemala. 
With an introduction by John M. 
Dimick. Special contributions by 
Charles Weer Goff, William C. 
Root, T. Dale Stewart, Nathalie 
F. S. Woodbury. New York, United 
Fruit Co. 

Final report on the architecture and 
artifacts of this highland site ex- 
cavated and restored by the United 
Fruit Company. Somewhat short on 
broad interpretations, this work 
nevertheless contains numerous 
stimulating ideas and is an import- 
ant contribution to the factual data 
on Mesoamerican archaeology. The 
second volume is devoted to illustra- 

Woodford, Irene Briggs 

1953 The "tree of life" in ancient Amer- 
ica: its representations and sig- 
nificance. B. U. Archaeol. Soc, 4: 

Zavala, Silvio A. 

1951 Los esclavos indios en Nueva Es- 
pana. In Homenaje Caso, pp. 427- 

The institution of Indian slavery as 
developed by Cortes and the Span- 
ish colonial policy. 

Zimmermann, Gunther 

1954a La lista de los meses quiches segiin 
Domingo de Basseta. Yan, 3:60-61. 
Photograph and transcription of in- 
formation apparently erroneously 
used by Brasseur from the Quiche 
dictionary now in Paris. 

1954b Notas para la historia de los 

manuscritos mayas. Yan, 3:62-63. 

Interesting notes on the discovery 

and early fortunes of some famous 



A. Inst. Arte Am. 

Anales del In&tituto de Arte Amei'icano e Esteticas. Universidad de 
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A. Inst. Inv. Estet. 

Anales del Institute do Investigaciones Es- 
teticas. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de 
Mexico. Ivlcxico, D. F., Mexico. 

A. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist. 

Anales del Institute Nacional de Antro- 
pologia e Historia. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

A. Mas. Nac. 

Anales del Musco Nacional de Arqueologia, 
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A. Soc. Geoj?. Hist. Guat. 

Anales de la Sociedad de Gcografia e His- 
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A. 31st Intl. Cong. Am. 

Annals of the Sl^^t International Congress 
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Acta Anihr. 

Acta Anlhropologica. Sociedad de Aliimnos 
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Acts Intl. Cong. Am. 

Acts u: the International Congress of Amer- 

Am. Anthr. 

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Am. Antiq. 

American Antiquity. The Society for Amer- 
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Am. Ethnol. Soc. 

American Ethnological Society. New York. 

Am. Indig. 

America Indigena. Instituto Indiger.ista 
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Am. Phil. Soc. Year Book 

American Philosophical Society Year Book. 
American Philosophical Society. Philadel- 
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And a Mies 

Anda Mios. Escuela de Pintura y Escultura 
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Anhembi. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 


Anthropos. Fribourg, Switzerland. 

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Antiquity and Survival. The Hague, Nether- 

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Antropolof^ia e Historia de Guatemala. L .- 
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Archaeology i 

Archaeoiot-'v. Archaeological Institute ot 
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Archiv f iir Volkerkunde 

Archiv fiir ' Vblhcrlzunde. Museum f ' r 
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Art News 

Art News. New York, N. Y. 


Atoneo. Ateneo de Ciei.cias y Artes de 
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Atlantis. Ziiricli, Switzerland. 

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Boletin de la Acidemia Nacional de H::j- 
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Boletin Bibliografico de Antropologi'a 
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E. Bib. S. Hac. Cr. Pub. 

Boletin Bibliografico de la Secretaria de 
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Boietin del Centro de Investigaciones An- 
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Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus. 
i:u]'.r.Lin of the Chicago Natural History 
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Cleveland Mus. Art 
Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art. 
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Geol. Soc. Am. 
Bulletin of the Geological Society of Amer- 
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Mus. Nac. 
Boletin del Museo Nacional. San Jos3, 
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Panam. Union 
Bulletin of the Pan American Union. Wash- 
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Soc. Mex. Geog. Estad. 
Boletin de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geo- 
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B. Soc. Suisse Am. 

Bulletin de la Societc Suisse dos Ameri- 
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B. Texas Archacol. Paleon. Soc. 

Bullftin of the Texas Archaeological anc'. 
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B. U. Archacol. Soc. 

Btiliftin of the University Arr}i.ieolo,';ical 
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E. U. Mas. 

Uulk'tin of the University Museum. Uni- 
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Baessler Arch. 

Baesslcr-Archiv. Baessler Institut, Staat- 
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Bib. Soc. Antr. Arqueol. 

Bibliotcca de la Sociedad de Antropologia 
y Arqueologia de Honduras y del Centro 
dc Estudios Mayas. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 

Bot. Mus. Leaflets 

Botanical Museum Leaflets. Botanical Mu- 
seum, Harvard University. Cambridge, 

Brit. Alu.s. Q. 

Brili.-;h Mu.seum Quarterly. London, Eng- 

Bureau Am. Ethn. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithson- 
ian Institution. Washington, D. C. 

Cranbi-ook Inst. Sci. 

Ciar.brook Institute of Science. Bloo iCield 
Hills, Mich. 

Cuad. Am. 

Cuadernos Americanos. Mexico, D. F., J-lex- 

Cuad. Hist. Arqueol. 

Cuadernoa do Hisloria y 
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EsLud. Am. j 

Estudios Americanos. Escucla do EFtudios 
Hispano-Amcricanos. Sevilla, Spain. 

Estud. Antr. 

Estudios anlropologicos publicados t". ho- 
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Estud. Hist. Am. 

Estudios Historicos Americanos. Hor.ienaje 
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Reyes. El Colcgio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F., 
Mexico. 1953. 


Ethnus. Slatens Etnografiska Museet. .-Stock- 
holm, Sweden. 

Etn. Stud. 

F-'.inologiska Studicr. Etnografiska Museet. 
Gcilt'borg, Sweden. 

Can. Geog. J. 

Canadian Geographical Journal. Canadian 
Geographical Society. Montreal, Canada. 

Carnegie Inst. Wash. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Cur. Rept. — Current Reports. Depart- 
ment of Archaeology. 
Note — Notes on Middle American 

Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy. Department of Arcli- 
Pub. — Publication. 

Contrib. — Contributions to American 
Anthropology and Hi.'^tory. 
Year Book — Carnegie Institution of 
Washington Year Book. 

Carnegie Mag. 

Carnegie Magazine. Carnegie Institute: 
Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh; Carnegie 
Institute of Technology. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cent. Estud. Hist. Puebla 

Centro de Estudios Historicos de Puebla. 
Pue'nla, Mexico. 

Cent. Inv. Antr. Mex. 

Centro de Investigaciones Antropologicas 
de Mexico. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 


Ciba symposia. Ciba Pharmaceutical Prod- 
ucts, Inc. Summit, N. J. 

Cien. Soc. 

Ciencias Sociales. Pan American Union. 
Washington, D. C. 

Geog. R. 

The Geographic Review. American Geo- 
graphical Society of New York. New York, 

N. Y. 

Hisp. Am. IIii:t. H. 

Hispanic American Historical Review. Duke 
University Press. Durham, N. C. 

Hist. Mcx. 

ITistoria Mexicana. Kl Colegio de Jfexico. 
Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 


Handbook of Latin American SUidic.s. Uni- 
versity of Florida Press. Gainesville, Fla. 


Homenaje al Doctor Alfonso Caso. Nuevo 
Mundo, Mexico. 1951. 


Handbook of South .American Indiana. Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143. 
Smith.'^onian Institution. Washingior;. D. C. 


Humanidades. Universidad de San Cai-los. 
Faculiad de Humanidades. Guatemala, 

Impr. Era 

The Imorovcment Era. Mutual Funds, Inc. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Inst. Hist. 

Institute de Historia. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 



Inst. Inv. Cicn. 

Inslituti) do Invcstigacioncs Cientificas. 
Univcrsidad de San Carlos. Guatemala, 

Inst. Inv. Estet. 

Instituro de Investigaciones Esteticas. Uni- 
vert^idnd Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 
I^Ioxico. D. F.. Mexico. 

Tnst. Nac. Antr. Hist. 

Instituto Xa clonal de Antropolosia e His- 
toria. Mexico. D. F., Mexico. 

Inst. Panam. Geog. Plist. 

Instituto Panamericano de Geograiia e His- 
toria. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

J. Royal Anthr. Inst. 

Journal of the Royal Anthropological In- 
stitute of Great Britain and Ireland. Lon- 
don, England. 

J. Soc. Am. 

Journal de la Socicte des Amcricanistes, 
publie avec le concours du Centre National 
de la Recherc/ie Scientifique et du Viking 
Fund. Paris, France. 

Johns Hopkins Mag. 

Johns Hopkins Magazine. Johns Hopkins 
University. Baltimore, Md. 


Khana. La Paz, Bolivia. 

Mag. Art 

Magazine of Art. The American Federation 

of Art. Wasliington, D. C. 

The Masterkey. Southwest Museum. Los 

Angeles, Calif. 

Mem. Acad. Mex. Hist. 

Momorias rie la Academia Mexicana de la 
Hisioria. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Mem. Acad. Nac. Hist. Geog. 

Mcmorias de la Academia Nacional de His- 
toria y Gcografia. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Mem. Coi. Nac. 

Memoria de El Colegio Nacional. Mexico, 
D. F., Mexico. 

Mem. Connecticut Acad. Arts Sci. 

Memoirs nf the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences. New Haven, Conn. 

Mem. Inst. Nac. Antr. Hist. 

Mcmorias del Instituto Nacional de Antro- 
pologia c Historia. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Mem. Peabody Mus. 

Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Arch- 
aeology and Ethnology. Harvard Univer- 
sity. Cambridge, Mass. 

Mem. R. Acad. Nac. Cien. 

Memorias y Revista de la Academia Na- 
cional de Ciencias. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Mem. Soc. Am. Archaeol. 

Memoi;:; of the Society for American Arch- 

i\icS'- '.ncr. Notes 

I'....--oamorican Notes. Mexico City College, 
l.jpartnient of Anthi-opology. Mexico, D. F., 

Mex. Antig. 

i:, Me.Kico Antiguo. Sociec'ad Alcmana 
:. -xicanista. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Mid;; ,: Am. Research Inst. 

r.iddlo American Research Institute, Tu- 
i> -.0 University. New Orleans, La. 

Middle Am. Research Rec. 

Middle American Research Records. T'u- 
la-ie University, Middle American Research 
Iiiititute. New Orleans, La. 

Misc. Am. 

Miscelanea Americanista. InsLituto Gonzalo 
I\ rnandez de Oviedo, Consejo Superior de 
Investigaciones Cientificas. Madrid, Spain. 

Mundo Hisp. 

M.uido Plispanico. Edicione.s Ibcroameri- 
Cunas. Madrid, Spain. 


Mu.-;eum. United Nations Educational, Sci- 
entific and Cultural Organization. Pari^ 

N. Ge:)g. Mag. 

N.-itional Geographic Magazine. National 

G;ographic Society. Washington, D. C 
Nat. Hist. 

Natural Hi.story. American Museum of Na- 

ural History. New York, N. Y. 
New V/orld Antiq. 

Now World Antiquity. London, England. 
New World Archaeol. Found. 

New World Archaeological Foundation. 

Oiinda, Calif. 

Pac. J USCOV. 

P: rific Discovery. California Academy of 
r^. : -nccs. Berkeley, Calif. 


P.':deuina. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kul- 
tii -morphologie voni Frobenius Institut auf 
d(.-.Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitiit. 
Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 


El Palacio. School of American Research, 
M i.seum of New Mexico, and Archaeologi- 
c;u Society of New Mexico. Santa Fe, N. 

Pal. Horn. 

L.'i Palabra y el Hombie. Univcrsidad Vera- 
cr.izana. Jala pa, Mexico. 

Pan Am. Union, Soc. Sci. Monogr. 

Pun American Union, Social Science Mono- 
'^r .i-.h.s. Washington, D. C. 

Papers Peabody Mus. 

Pr.pcrs of the Peabody Museum of Arch- 
aeology and Ethnology. Harvard University. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Pro. Am. Ph-a. Soc. 

Procccdingi-. of the American Philosophical 
Society. Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pro. 30th Intl. Cong. A:n. 

Proceedinss of the 30th Internationa! C-n- 
fi'ress of Americanists, Cambridge, En 
1952. 1954. 

R. "El Universo" 

Revista "El Universe" de la Sociedad .'-s- 
tronomica de Mexico. 

R. Estud. Yucatecos 

Revista de Estudios Yucatecos. Merida, Yu- 

R. Indias 

Revista de Indias. Conscjo Superior dc n- 
vestigaciones Cientificas. Institute Gon:'. -lo 
Feir,;'uidoz de*Oviedo. Madrid, Spain. 

R. Inll. Soc. 

Ivt'visla Intornacion.-il dc Soriolnr^ia. C:>ii- 
.scjo Superior dc Invcstij^acioncs Cicntirica?. 
Institute Balmcs de Sociologia. Madi id, 

R. Mex. Estud. Antr. 

Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropj.p- 
gicos. Sociedad Mexicana de Antropoloi.ia. 
Alexico, D. F., Mexico. 

R. Mus. Nac. 

Revista del Museo Nacional. Lima, Peru. 

R. Paris 

La Revue de Paris. Paris, France. 


Revista de Revistas. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 


Runa. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Im-ui- 
tuto de Antropologia. Buenos Aires, Argen- 

Some educational £ ".d anthropoio; ical as- 

V't'C'tS ' 

1 and anthropolc.iical as- 
;; irica. Inst. Latin Ameri- 

ci.w Si;v;...._j, lio. 0. Univ. Austin, Texas. 

1.048. ! 

SV/. J. Anthr. 

Southv/esiern .Tcarnc. c^ Anth opology. 
University of New Mexico ajid Lv boratory 

ol ■ Anthropul.i;' .'. Santa Fe. 


Tenn. .■ ;■ 

T.-,,- . .■■ 

;;i;()l ■ ./ jw;:^;ivij;;:, 

Tlaloc.'M ! ; 

TJalcHMU. La Casa de TlaloC Mo;:i ;, D. F., 
Mexico. ' ' 


Tlatoaiii. ^ui..\.:d'i . de AluiVinos c ; la Es- 
ciiela Nacional de Antropologia e Ilistoria. 
Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 

Transactioris of th:; ^\jnerican Fhilasophical 
Society. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Trans. Nev/ York Acad. £ci. 

Transactions of th-i New York Ac;. demy of 
Science. New York, N. Y. 


Tzunpame. Musoo Nacional de SI Salvador 
y Anexos. San S^.vador. 


Saeculum. Freiburg-Munich, Germany. 

School Am. Research 

School of American Research, Museum of 
New Mexico. Santa Fe, N. Mex. 

Sci. Am. 

Scientific American. New York, N. Y. 

Sci. Monthly 

Scientific Monthly. American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. Washing- 
ton, D. C. 


Science. American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. Washington, D. C. 


Sintesis. Museo Nacional de Salvador. San 
Salvador, El Salvador. 

Smithsonian Misc. Col. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 
Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D. C. 

Soc. Am. 

La Societe des Americanistes. Paris, 

Soc. Mex. Antr. 

Sociedad Mexicana de Antropologia. Uni- 
versidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 
Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Soc. Mex. Geog. Estud. 

Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estad.'s- 
tica. Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

U. California Press, Ibero-Americana 

University of California Press, Ibero- 
Amoricana. Berkeley, Calif. 

U. Calif. Pub. Am. Archaeol. Ethn. 

University of California Publications in 
American Ai-chacology and Etxinology. 
Berkeley, Calif. 

U. Kansas Mus. Art 

University of Kansas Museum of Art. 

U. Mexico 

Universidad de Mexico. Universidad Na- 
cional Autonoma. Mexico, D. F., llexico. 

U. Miami Hisp. Am. Studies 

University of Miami Hispanic American 
Studies. Coral Gables, Fla. 

U. Nac. Autonoma de Mexico 

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 
Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

U. New Mexico Pub. Anthr. 

University of New Mexico Publications in 
Anthropology. Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

U. San Carlos 

Universidad de San Carlos. Guatemala 
City, Guatemala. 

UNESCO Courier 

Organ of the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization. New 
York and Paris. 












Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Em- 
bassy in the U.S.A. Washington, D. C. 

king Fund Pub. Anthr. 
Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology. 
Wenner-Gren Fovi.'.'.ation for Anthropo- 
logical Research. New York, N. Y. 

)KS 3. 

VOKS Bulletin. The Soviet Union Society 
for Cultural Relations with Foreign Coun- 
tries. Moscow, USSR. ' 


Xallixtlico. Departamcnto ! Cultura 
Estado Guadalajara, Mexico, 

Yan ! • 

Yan. Centro de Invostigaciohes Antropalo- 
gicas de jy:<b:ico. Mexico, Dj F., Ivlexico. 

Yikal : 

Yikal MayS'l^^n. Revista de Literatura. 
Merida, Yucatan. 

Zeit. Ethn. 

Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie. Berlin, Germany. 


Not included are ethnohislory, calcndric epigraphy, broad studies ol cultural de- 
velopment, area summaries, site descrip lions, or general reports on exca Vatican and 

Acculturation. Willey 1953. 

Agiiculture and food plants. Higbee 1943; 
Shook 1949b, 1951b; Carter 1950; Evaris 
and Meggers 1952; Dressier 1953; Di.- 
valos Huriado 1954-55. Cacao: Thompson 
1S56. Chinavipas: West and Armillas 
1050. Cucurbit: Whitaker, Cutler, aiid 
i-.acNeish 1957. Maize: Meade 1948; Veia 
1950; Rendon 1953; Stone 1956; Comas 
1957. Vanilla: Bruman 1948. 

Ambassadors. Garcia Payon 1950. 

Animals. Pollock and Kay 1957. Bai: 
Aguilar 1948. Dog: Maklonado-Koeri;-]] 
1951; Termer 1957. Monkey: Maldonadu- 
Koerdell 1951; Borhegyi 1952b. '-:. •■ 
Nicholson 1955a. 

Architecture. Do?7iestic; Ruppert 
Smith 1952, 1954; Smith and Rupiv ■ l 
1953, 1956. Floor basins: Wauchope 191' u. 
Gallery-patio: Ruppert 1950; Rupp';t 
and Smith 1955. Sweathouses: Sattrr- 
thwaite 1952. STjmbolisin: Krickchc^g 
1950a. See also Fortifications, Ball courts. 

Ball courts and ball game. Krickebcrg 
1946; Wauchope 1948c; Stern 1950, 19:A; 
Ramirez 1951; Shook 195ia, 1952c; Sala- 
zar 1952; Stromsvik 1952; Rouse 1953; 
Grace 1954; Schroeder 1955. 

Beekeeping. Wilson 1953. 

Butterfly god. Case 1950. 

Canoes. Thompson 1949a. 

Cenotes. R. E. Smith 1953, 1954; Tozzer 

Censers. Bogg 1949; Borhegyi 1951b, 195" c, 

1955, 1956a, 1957a; Thompson 1957; Von 

Winning 1958a. 
Chac AiooL. Corona Nuiiez 1952a; Liza.di 

Ramos 1952a, 1955; Salazar 1952; Aco ta 

Character (Maya). Thom.pson 1955. 
Chinese figurines. Mason 1951; Borhegyi 

Climate. Sears 1951, 1952, 1953; Sokoloff 

and Lorenzo 1953. 
CoATLicuE. Fernandez 1954. 
Commerce. Stone 1951; Lehmann iOil; 

Molins Fabrega 1955-56. 

CoNcii DEITY. Von Winning 1949a, 1950. 

Corn. See Agi-iculture, maize; Maize, dei- 
ties, magic. 

Costumes. Du Solier 1050; Osborne 1952. 

Cruciform artif.'\cts. Howard 1954; Fay 
195Ga; Hughes 195G. 

Danzantes of Monte Aldan. Davalos Hur- 
tado 1951; Romero 1951; Richards 1955. 

Dead, treatment of the. Estrada Balmori 
and Pina Chan 1948; Obregon de la Parra 
1943; Estrada Balmori 1949; Blom 1954; 
M. Coe 1955; Corona Nunez 1954. 

Death god. Case 1952. 

Dental decoration. Linne 1948. 
)0G. See Animals. 

JoMESTiCATiON. Scc Animals; Turkeys. 

Douchnut-shaped vessels. Peterson 1955a. 

Dress. See Costumes. 

DucKPOTS. Borhegyi 1952a. 

Dwellings. See Architecture, domestic. 

Eagles. Nogucra and Leonard 1957. 

Earth monster. Blom 1950. 

Ecology. Palerm ar.d Wolf 1957. See also 

Economy. Stone 1951a; Chamberlain 1951; 

Sanders 1952; Palerm and Wolf 1954-55; 

Molins Fabrega 1955-56, 1956. 
Ehecatl. See Quetzalcoatl. 

Food. See Agriculture. 

Figurines. See Chinese figurines; Infant 

figurines; Jointed figurines; Wheeled 

Fortifications. Armillas 1948c, 1951a; 

Jakeman 1950; Ruz Lhuillier 195' a; Gill- 

mor 1954-55; Palerm 1956. 

Games. Ai-.'IcT.son 1 948a. 
Gold. Scc Metals. 

Hand-eye motif. Rar.ds 1957. 

Hand prints. Cooke 1951. 

Headdresses^ Dietschy 1948; Franco 1957. 

HE^TEQUEN. irigoycr 1949, 1950. 

.ijyra Arx'oyo dc A da and 
'.'jerdell 1952, 19.': 'i. Franco 

1954, l£o 





K.-.XT KiGURiNEs. Moi'ss 1952; Lehmann 
i -53. 

.;i'jATiON. Armillas 1949; Palerrn 1955a; 
Milloi; 1954, 1957; V/olf and Palerm 1955; 
Armillas, Palerm, and Wolf 1956. 

Jacijak cod. Judd 1951. 

JoiNTKD KUiuniNKS. liovhci^'yi 1950b, 1954c. 

Land ti:nuick. Kirchhofr 1954-55. 

Languack, symi;olic. Scjournc 1956. 

Law, legal systems. Recinos 1951; Diaz 
Vasconcelos 1951, 1953; Uribe de Fer- 
nandez de Cordoba 1954-55. 

LiTiERS. Orellana Tapia 1955. 

Lost color. Butler 1951. 

Magic. Toscano 1949; Thompson 1950a; 
Sojourne 1952. 

Maguey and pulque. Lima 1956. See also 

Maize. Deities: Girard 1948; Lizardi Ra- 
mos 1956; De Piorri 1956; Digby 1955. 
Magic: Sojourne 1952. 

Malnutrition. Brito 1948. 

Mask, pottery. Borhegyi 1955b. 

Medicine, disease, and health. M. Noguera 
1954; Vargas Castelazo 1954-55; Borhegyi 
a]:id Scrimshaw 1957. See also Malnu- 

Metals, metallurgy. Foote 1951; Dietschy 
i:;51; Stone i951b; Lothrop 1952; Soren- 
sun 1954; Haberland 1954; R. E. Smith 
li;55b; Easby 1956, 1957; Comas 1957; 
Sione and Balser 1958. 

Mixcoatl. Ramirez 1951. 

Moan bird. Blom 1950. 

Mohning Star cult. Acosta Saignes 1950; 
B.irthel 1952; Caso 1956. 

Mo:;tars, plasters, STUCCO. Littman 1957. 

Music. Marii 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955; Lizardi 
Ramos 1956. Ocarinas: Karcourt 1951. 
Truv^■pets: Franco 1956; Di Peso 1957; 
Yeomans 1955. 

Mythology. Alcina Franch 1957; Corona 
Nunez 1957. 

Owl. Von Winning 1948; Braunholtz 1951. 

Palmate .stones. Ekliolm 1949; Garcia 

Payon 1949c, ]95Uc. 
Palynology. See Climate. 
Paper. Lenz 1949, 1950; Iturribarria 1956; 

Comas 1957. See also Maguey. 
Patcued-eye figures. Von Winning 1949. 
Penitential rites. Marti 1953. 
Philosophy. Leon Portilla 1956a, b; Comas 


Pipes, smoking. Porter 1948; Di Peso 1957. 
Political alliances. Barlow 1948b, 1949c, 

lS49d, 19490. 

POLITIC'^', GEOGRAPiiY. Koys 1957. 

PoLiTicAT, org.\nization; Thompson 1951a; 
Thunr-vald 1951; Palerm and Wolf 1954- 
55; Duvila Garibe 1957. 

Population density. Termer 1951a; Palerm 

Quei'zalcoatl. Jimenez 19-17-4.'!; Spindon 
i91.'>; ;:'.(Jjourne 1954a, 19541); Diaz-Bolio 
1955, 1957; Gai'cia Payon 1055; Peterson 
1956b; Borhegyi 1957; Mcdcllin Zenil 
1957; Von Winning 1958b. 

Rain gods. Borhegyi 1950e; Lizardi Ramos 
1951d; Thomp.son 1951a; Peterson 1952c; 
Lizard' Ranics 1955; Thompson 1957; 
Navarrete 1957. 

Rubber. Thompson 1950b. 

Sacle. Pollock 1954, 1956. 

Sackikiciis. Schaefer 1943; Heizcr 1948; 
Sojourne 1950, 1958; Aco.sta Saignes 
1950; Davalos Hurtado 1951; Stone 1951a; 
Coron;. Nuiiez 1952b; Orellana Tapia 
1955; Lehmann 1955; Caso 1956; Tozzer 

SErrLEMJNT patterns. Euilard 1952, 1954; 
Willey, Bullard, and Glass 1955; Willey 
1956; Sanders 1956; Borhegyi 1956b; Kel- 
ley l£-56; MacNeish 1956; Shook and 
Proskouriakoii 1956; Caso 1956a; Miles 

Shell. See Conch deity. 

Smiling heads. Medellin Zenil and Peter- 
son 1954; Peterson 19.54a, 1954b. 

Smokinc mirror. Krickeberg 1951 ; Niciiol- 
son 1954. 

Snake Lt'ncY. Meighan and Bennyhoff 

Snarfs and traps. See Hunting. 

Society. Monzon 1949; Morgan 1950; 
Thurnwald 1951; Pifia Chan 1953; Bor- 
liogyi '954a, 1956a; Willey, Bullard, and 
Glass 1.955; Willey 1956; Caso 1956a; M. 
Coe ly.)?. 

Soils. Sr-j Climate. 
SPEAR-T;i;;owERS. Von Winning 1953. 
Stonecu'jting, jade sources. Bel.ser 1953; 

Foshag and Leslie 1955; Lothrop 1955; 

Outwater 1957; Barbour 1957. 
Sun. Soustelle 1948. 
SwEATHOusES. See Architecture; Thermal 

Symbol.s. Soustelle 1948; Echanove Tru- 

jillo 1936. Color hlack: Beyer 1956. 



Tr.LTii. See Deninl decoration. 

Textiles. O'Nealc 134G. 

Tezcatlipoca. Franco 1955a. 

Thermal springs. Corona Nunez 1948b. 

Tlaloc. See Rain gods. 

Tlazoteotl. Thompson 1957. 

Transportation. See Canoes, Litters. 

Tree of life. Woodford 1953; Jakeman 

Tribute. Chamberlain 1951; Molins Fab- 
rega 1955-56. 

Turkeys. Tibon 1948; Termer 1950; Pol- 
lock and Ray 1957. 

Venus. Soustelle 1948; Spinden 194C; Ore- 
liana 1952. 
Volador. Stresser-Pean 1948. 

War and weapon;".. Potct'.;i<ji j; ,ib; Bor- 
f^onio Caspar 1954-55; Palcrui Djfi; Von 
Winning 1958. See also Forti'. .cations. 

Watt:r. Deities: Lehmann 1943b; Tliomp- 
son 1951a; Rands 1954. Rititals: Von Win- 
ning 1250. See also Rain '-' 

Water lily. Rands 1953. 

Wheeled figurines. Von \v':]inir 15 1951. 

Wind god. See Quetzalcoatl. 

Woodcutting. Cutwater 1957. 

XiPE Totec. Corona Nufiez 1L52..; Thornp- 

soi\ 1957. 
XociriPiLi.r. Garcia Payon 1055 Sejourne 

1954; Franco ID 57. 
XocHiQUETZAL. Scjoume 1954. 
XoLOTL. Tibon 1S43; Nowotny i ;49. 

Walls. See Settlement patterns; F..Ttifi- Zodiac. Makemson 1957. 
cations. Zoo. Nicholson 1955a. 

50 1/, 3 7